1. Marketing communications perform many
functions for consumers such as telling or showing how and why a product is
used, by what kind of person, and where and when.
2. The rapid diffusion of powerful broadband
Internet connections, digital video recorders, multipurpose cell phones, and
portable music and video players has bolstered the effectiveness of the mass
3. Every brand contact delivers an impression
that can strengthen or weaken a customer’s view of the company.
4. The starting point in planning
marketing communications is an audit of all the brands that customers in the
target market have with the company.
5. Because brand awareness and brand recall
operate along the same brand recognition continuum, anything that causes the
consumer to notice and pay attention to the brand will enhance brand recall.
6. In the macromodel of communication, noise
does not affect the communication process between sender and receiver.
7. Micromodels of marketing communications
concentrate on consumers’ specific responses to communications.
8. The “learn-do-feel” model of consumer
response models is relevant when the audience has low involvement and perceives
little differentiation within the product category.
9. All consumers that develop a preference for
a given product also display a conviction about buying it.
10. Though we can profile the target
audience in terms of any number of market segments, it’s often useful to do so
in terms of usage and loyalty.
11. Brand recall is easier to achieve
than brand recognition.
12. Promotional offers in the form of
coupons or two-for-one deals encourage consumers to make a mental commitment to
buy a product, particularly if the consumer does not have an expressed category
13. Communication objectives can be
set at any level of the hierarchy-of-effect model.
14. An informational appeal elaborates on
product or service attributes or benefits.
15. Attention-getting tactics are
often too effective and distract from brand or product claims.
16. Two-sided messages are more
effective when negative associations must be overcome.
17. The factors that underlie source
credibility include expertise, trustworthiness, and appropriateness.
18. Borrowed-interest approaches to
attract attention and create more liking and belief in the sponsor may also
detract from comprehension, wear out their welcome fast, and overshadow the
19. Messages delivered by attractive
or popular sources can achieve higher attention and recall.
20. If a person has a positive
attitude toward a source and a message, or a negative attitude toward both, a
state of congruity is said to exist.
21. The principle of congruity implies that
communicators can use their good image to reduce some negative feelings toward
a brand but in the process might lose some esteem with the audience.
22. Companies that sell their products to
different cultures or in different countries do not need to worry about varying
23. Selecting efficient channels to
carry the message becomes more difficult as channels of communication become
more fragmented and cluttered.
24. Personal communication channels
derive their effectiveness through individualized presentation and feedback.
25. Most nonpersonal messages come through paid
26. Mass communications affect personal
attitudes and behavior through a two-step process.
27. Events always have a lasting effect on
brand awareness, knowledge, and preference.
28. The influence of mass media on public
opinion is as direct, powerful, and automatic as supposed.
29. The two-step flow confirms the
notion that consumption styles are primarily influenced by the “trickle-down”
or “trickle-up” effect from mass media.
30. The percentage-of-sales method of setting
promotional expenditures calculates spending dollars based upon a percentage of
last years’ total sales.
31. The objective-and-task method calls upon
marketers to develop promotion budgets by defining specific objectives,
determining the tasks that must be performed to achieve these objectives, and
estimating the costs of performing these tasks.
32. The competitive-parity method of
promotions budgeting has been repeatedly shown to prevent promotion wars.
33. Advertising can be used to build
up a long-term image for a product or trigger quick sales.
34. The pervasiveness of advertising permits
the seller to repeat a message many times.
It also allows the buyer to receive and compare the messages of various
35. Companies must consider several factors in
developing their communications mix: the type of product market, consumer
readiness to make a purchase, and stage in the product’s life cycle. Also
important is the company’s market rank.
36. In measuring communication results, senior
managers want to know the outcomes and revenues resulting from their
37. Integrated marketing communications is a
concept of marketing communications planning that recognizes the added value of
a comprehensive plan.
38. The awareness and attitudes created by
advertising campaigns do not generally affect the success of direct sales
39. Integrated marketing
communications can produce stronger message consistency and greater sales
assessing the collective impact of an IMC program, the overriding goal is to
create the most effective and efficient communications program possible.