1. Leadership occurs among people,
involves the use of influence, and is used to attain goals.
means that the relationship among people is passive.
that successful leaders share specific personal characteristics, leadership
research has validated Leadership Trait Theory.
verbal ability, and high values are three distinguishing personal
characteristics associated with successful leaders.
honesty and integrity, enthusiasm, and the desire to lead, are all intelligence
and ability components of personal characteristics of leaders.
7. Ohio State University researchers identified two
major behaviors called consideration and initiating structure.
is the extent to which the leader is task oriented and directs subordinate work
activities toward goal attainment.
structure is the extent to which the leader is mindful of subordinates,
respects their ideas and feelings, and establishes mutual trust.
10. Ohio State’s
“high-high” style is not always the best, according to new research.
leaderhsip grid suggests a two-dimensional leadership theory that measures a
leader’s concern for people and concern for production.
leaders are those leaders that establish high performance goals and display
supportive behavior toward subordinates.
country club management style (1,9) stresses high service and concern for
guests or customers, sometimes to the detriment of employees of the firm.
14. To match
the leader’s style with the situation by changing factors in the situation to
achieve the best match is the basic idea with Fiedler’s contingency theory.
to Fiedler, leader-member relations, task structure and task consideration are
the three factors that combine to determine the leadership situation.
Structure refers to the extent to which the leader has formal authority over
to Fiedler, the task-oriented leader excels in the favorable situation whereas
relationship-oriented leaders are most effective in situations of moderate
and Blanchard’s situational theory focuses a great deal of attention on the
characteristics of employees in determining appropriate leadership behavior.
theory model is easier to understand than Fiedler’s model, but it incorporates
only the characteristics of followers, not those of the situation.
20. According to Hersey and Blanchard, the telling style is
appropriate for followers with moderate readiness.