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Module 4 – Background
Case: Outputs Diagnosis, SLP: Time Warp 3

Background Reading for
Case 4
In Case 4, you will continue with the
Nadler-Tushman Congruence Model to assess an organization’s outputs. Nadler and
Tushman identify outputs as existing at the individual, group, and
organizational level. They also emphasize the importance of identifying the
outputs that the organization desires vs. what is actually achieved.
Read:
Nadler, D. A. & Tushman, M. L. (1980) A
Model for Diagnosing Organizational Behavior.Organizational Dynamics, 9 (2), 35-51. Retrieved on November 7, 2012
from EBSCO.
For Case 4, focus on the Outputs aspect of this
model. Read pages 43 to 51.
Outputs are not complicated to understand. At
the Organization level, they are the products and services that are provided to
its customers. (It can also be the value provided to its owners, but we are not
going to consider this here.) The primary way that a company measures its
performance is financially: Sales, Profit, Return on Sales (ROS), Return on
Assets; and also via market share.
The organization is made up of various groups.
One way to look at groups is by functional area: marketing, operations,
purchasing, etc. Another way, if the company is large, is by its various
divisions or by its product groupings. Here it becomes a little more
complicated to measure performance, but it is possible by defining the goals
and objectives of each group.
The bottom level of the organization is the
individual. Each person has a job description and is responsible for specific
outputs for that job. The main method of performance measurement here is
individual productivity: Outputs/Inputs (e.g., widgets/hour, or reports/day).
This is more difficult to quantify and for a specific company is difficult to
obtain, since this data is not generally reported. Sometimes you can infer some
individual measures, for example, by dividing Profit by the number of total
employees, to get a measure of overall profitability per person.
There are no reading
assignments for SLP 4
However, if you need a refresher on various
theories (product life cycle, pricing, price elasticity, market saturation,
product development, etc.) there are a multitude on the Internet.
Optional Review
Materials – Once again, here is
the link to the sample Internet resource list for the course. Click here.

BUS599 – MBA Integrative
Project
Module 4 – SLP
Case: Outputs Diagnosis, SLP: Time Warp 3

BACKGROUND
In Module 4, you will continue with the scenario
and simulation you worked on in the Module 1, Module 2, and Module 3 SLPs.
REQUIRED READING
SCENARIO CONTINUATION:
It is now January 2,
2012 (again), still at the beginning of Time Warp 2. You have just completed your revised strategy
using CVP analysis, and you are ready to charge ahead. You implement your
decisions for 2012, see the results at the end of the year, and collect these
results to use later. Again, you implement the decisions you have already made
for 2013, and collect the results at the end of the year. You do the same for
2014 and 2015, hoping this time that you can finally move ahead into 2016.
It is now New Year’s Eve, 2015 — what you hope
is the end of not only Time Warp 2, but all the time warps. You have the
results of your decisions. How did you do? What was your final score? Will it
finally be 2016 when you wake up?
It’s New Year’s day, 2016. You just had a great
New Year’s Eve celebration, you finished another four years of moving Clipboard
Tablet Company through 2012 – 2015, and are ready to charge ahead into the
future. You notice something strange (again): The TV commentator is saying
something about New Year’s Day, 2012.You are now in Time Warp 3.
Maybe you need to keep improving Clipboard
Tablet’s performance so that you can finally move ahead. Vowing to do better
this time, you decide that your best approach is to develop a four-year
strategy like you did the last time.
You analyze the results of your last set of
decisions from 2012 to 2015. You are going to use CVP analysis (and the CVP
Calculator) again to help determine a new strategy. You will get better at it.
You analyze the results from Time Warp 2 using
CVP and develop your complete four-year strategy. You decide to make notes
about your analysis and your reasoning process, just in case you have to do
this again.
You finish your report showing the strategy you
are going to use these next four years, Time Warp 3.
ASSIGNMENT
Using the strategy that you developed in SLP3,
run the simulation. Review and analyze these results (from your Time Warp 2
decisions) and develop a revised strategy for Time Warp 3. Support your revised
strategy using analysis and relevant theories.
Please turn in a 4- to 6-page paper, not
including cover and reference page.
KEYS TO THE ASSIGNMENT
The key aspects of this
assignment that should be covered and taken into account in preparing your
paper include:
·
The revised strategy
consists of the Prices, R&D Allocation %, and any product discontinuations
for the X5, X6, and X7 tablets for each of the four years: 2012, 2013, 2014,
and 2015.
·
You must present a
rational justification for this strategy. In other words, you must make a case
for your proposed strategy using financial analysis and relevant theories.
·
Use the CVP Calculator
and review the PowerPoint that explains CVP and provides some examples.
·
You need tocrunch some numbers (CVP Analysis) to help you
determine your prices and R&D allocations.
·
Make sure your proposed
changes in strategy are firmly based in this analysis of financial and market
data and sound business principles.Your goal is to practice using CVP and get
better at it.
·
Present your analysis
professionally, making strategic use of tables, charts and graphs.
·
Time Line Summary.
SLP1
·
2015: Hired on December
15.
·
Turned in first report
to Sally a few days early on December 30.
·
Celebrated on December
31.
SLP2
·
Time Warp 1 begins:
January 1, 2016 warps into January 1, 2012.
·
You realize you have to
make decisions for 2012 – 2015, which you do.
·
December 31, 2015 – You
have gone through all four years, and you write your report to summarize how
you did. You are hoping that you will wake up tomorrow and it will be 2016.
SLP3
·
Time Warp 2 begins:
January 1, 2016 warps into January 1, 2012. (Again)
·
Now it is January 1, 2012: You decide to use CVP analysis and develop a four-year plan for
your strategy. You analyze the results of your first decisions in Time Warp 1
and make notes. You use the CVP Calculator to help you develop your strategy
and you make more notes explaining your logic and your analysis.
SLP4
·
January 2, 2012: You
begin to implement your four-year plan. You follow it and use the
pre-determined decisions for each year, through 2015. You keep track of the
results, year by year, both financial and marketing.
·
Celebrate – December 31,
2015
·
Time Warp 3 begins:
January 1, 2016warps into
January 1, 2012 (Again).
·
Now it is January 1, 2012 (for the third time). You do it all over again, one more time. You
decide to do the same thing you did the last time and develop a four-year plan.
You use CVP, analyze your previous results, and make notes explaining what you
did and why.
ASSIGNMENT EXPECTATIONS
Your paper will be
evaluated on the following seven points:
·
Breadth – Is the full
breadth of the subject, that is, the Keys to the Assignment, addressed?
·
Depth – Does the paper
address the topic in sufficient depth and include the background reading and
other background resources as references?
·
Critical thinking – Is
the subject thought about critically, that is, accurately, logically,
relevantly, and precisely?
·
Clarity – Is the writing
clear and are the concepts articulated properly? Are paraphrasing and synthesis
of concepts the primary means of responding to the questions or are points
conveyed through excessive use of quotations?
·
Organization – Is the
paper well written? Are the grammar, spelling, and vocabulary appropriate for
graduate-level work? Are headings included in all papers longer than two pages?

·
Referencing (citations
and references) – Does the paper include citations and quotation marks where
appropriate? Are the references from the background reading and assignment
present and properly cited? Are all the references listed in the bibliography
present and referred to via citation?
·
Application – Are the
concepts of the module appropriately applied to the subject?
TIPS AND SUGGESTIONS
Note the following tips
and suggestions:
·
YOU MIGHT FIND THESE DOWNLOADS USEFUL:
Decision Matrix Table – Download this Word doc with a blank table you
can use to show your proposed strategy decisions.
PowerPoint discussing CVP – provides a good overview of Cost Volume
Profit analysis, the various equations that you can use, and how to use it.
Some examples are provided showing how to use the CVP Calculator.
CVP Calculator – this an Excel-based calculator that you can
use to determine prices, volumes, and profits. Keep in mind that it will tell
you what need, but the market determines what you actually get.
·
Include a cover page and
reference page, in addition to the 4-6 pages of analysis described above.
·
Include headings for all
papers greater than two pages (basically all papers), but do not use headings
as “space fillers.”
·
Cite and reference all
sources that you use in your work, including those that you paraphrase. This
means include citations and quotation marks for direct quotes of more than five
words, and citations for that information which you have “borrowed”
or paraphrased from other sources.
·
Follow TUI Guidelines for
well-written papers.

BUS599 – MBA Integrative
Project
Module 4 – Case
Case: Outputs Diagnosis, SLP: Time Warp 3

BACKGROUND
XCG
THE EXCELLENT CONSULTING GROUP
COMMUNICATION FROM ART:
Onward to the next project: Outputs of Whole
Foods Market. As I indicated before, this is a follow-up using the Nadler-Tushman
Congruence Model.
We need to analyze how Whole Foods Market has
been doing in terms of its performance and how it stacks up against its goals.
We will do this at three levels: the overall organizational level, the group
level, and the individual level. The Congruence Model explains this well. You
should be up to speed on this model.
The executives want to know how congruent the
outputs are across the three levels. Given your analysis of performance at each
of the three levels, are the interactions of these outputs congruent – highly,
somewhat, or very little? Make this determination and support it with a logical
argument using the information that you obtain about Whole Foods Market’s goals
and performance.
REQUIRED READING:
Nadler, D. A. & Tushman, M. L. (1980)A Model for Diagnosing
Organizational Behavior.
Organizational
Dynamics, 9 (2), 35-51.
Retrieved on November 7, 2012 from EBSCO.
CASE 4 ASSIGNMENT:
Use the Nadler-Tushman
Congruence Moduleto analyze Whole Foods
Market’s outputs. Start with the Organizational Level. Identify the Outputs –
what does it produce and sell? What are its goals? How has it been performing?
Then go the group level. What are some groups that Whole Foods Market
identifies, and the goals and performance of these groups. Finally, discuss the
Individual level. Here you will find it difficult to get much detailed
information, so identify five to seven key jobs and their outputs. How can the
performance of these jobs be measured? Finally determine the congruence of the
outputs and make a strong argument for your case.
Be sure to include references. Turn in the 5- to
7-page paper by the end of the module.
KEYS TO THE ASSIGNMENT:
In order to make your case you need to identify
the outputs of the organization at each of three levels. Also identify the
goals that it has set and its current performance. Include the following:
·
Outputs at the
organizational level are the products and/or services that it provides to its
customers. What are these and how does the company categorize them? How does it
measure its organizational performance (e.g., sales, net profit, return on
sales, return on assets, market share, customer satisfaction, etc.). Provide
some specific performance data.
·
What are some ways the
company identifies groups? For example, are there geographic groups (or
divisions), functional groups, etc. What are the outputs of these groups? How
does it (or how might it) measure performance of these groups?
·
What are some of the key
individual functions, and what are their outputs? How do these outputs
contribute to the group outputs? How do they measure individual performance?
·
Evaluate how the outputs
at the different levels interact with each other. Determine if you think the
congruence of the outputs is high, medium, or low. Thenmake a strong case. It is very important that you support your
position with evidence and information that you have discussed earlier in the
report.
ASSIGNMENT EXPECTATIONS
Your paper will be
evaluated on the following seven points:
·
Precision – Does the
paper address the question(s) or task(s)?
·
Breadth – Is the full
breadth of the subject, that is, the Keys to the Assignment, addressed?
·
Depth – Does the paper
address the topic in sufficient depth and include the background reading and
other background resources as references?
·
Critical thinking – Is
the subject thought about critically, that is, accurately, logically,
relevantly, and precisely?
·
Clarity – Is the writing
clear and are the concepts articulated properly? Are paraphrasing and synthesis
of concepts the primary means of responding to the questions or are points
conveyed through excessive use of quotations?
·
Organization – Is the
paper well written? Are the grammar, spelling, and vocabulary appropriate for
graduate-level work? Are headings included in all papers longer than two pages?

·
Referencing (citations
and references) – Does the paper include citations and quotation marks where
appropriate? Are the references from the background readings and assignment
present and properly cited? Are all the references listed in the bibliography
present and referred to via citation?
TIPS AND SUGGESTIONS
·
You may use a simple
diagram to highlight important factors. However, do not use the diagram in lieu
of valuable analysis (or to take up writing space) – it should be in addition
to your 5-7 pages of analysis.
·
Just because you have
written the minimum four pages does not mean that you have adequately covered
the topic. Err on the side of writing more rather than less.
·
Choose the data you use
carefully. Is it relevant and important?
·
Include a cover page and
reference page, in addition to the 5 to 7 pages of analysis described above.
·
Include headings within
the paper.
·
Cite and reference all
sources that you use in your work, including those that you
·
paraphrase. This means
include citations and quotation marks for direct quotes of more than five
words, and citations for that information which you have “borrowed”
or paraphrased from other sources.
Follow TUI Guidelines for
well-written papers.

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