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123. T F
A product need not be a physical product.

124. T F
A service is intangible and is the result of the application of human or
mechanical efforts to people or objects.

125. T F
Supporting services, such as installation and guarantees, are part of a

126. T F
The core product element of the total product can include installation,
delivery, training, and financing.

127. T F
The atmosphere and décor of a retail store, the variety and depth of
product choices, the customer support, even the sounds and smells all
contribute to the experiential element of its total product.

128. T F
The buyer’s intent can determine whether an item is classified as a
consumer or a business product.

129. T F
Use of the product is the most important means of distinguishing
consumer products from business products.

130. T F
The two major product categories are business and institutional.

131. T F
A product’s classification can influence its price, distribution, and

132. T F
Bread is usually a convenience product.

133. T F
Consumers are reluctant to purchase substitute brands if a desired brand
of a convenience product is unattainable.

134. T F
Unfinished furniture is considered to be a convenience product because
it is relatively inexpensive.

135. T F
Per-unit gross margins on convenience products are relatively high.

136. T F
The gross margin percentage on convenience goods is usually fairly high
because they are low-priced items.

137. T F
Buyers want to exert only minimal effort to obtain shopping products.

138. T F
Service, repair work, and accessories may be important considerations in
a consumer’s decision to purchase a particular shopping product.

139. T F
Obtaining a specialty product involves a considerable amount of
comparison activity.

140. T F
Accessory equipment becomes a part of the finished product.

141. T F
Component parts usually need to be processed significantly before they
are used in production.

142. T F
Process materials are used directly in the production of products.

143. T F
“Business Services” is not a category or type of business product.

144. T F
A product line is a particular version of a product that can be
designated as a distinct offering on the organization’s list of products.

145. T F
A product line includes a group of closely related product items that
are considered to be a unit because of marketing, technical, or end-use

146. T F
Product mix refers to a related group of products in the product line.

147. T F
The depth of a product mix is measured by the average number of product
types in a product line.

148. T F
The width of a product mix refers to the number of generic products
offered by a company.

149. T F
A product mix is the composite or total group of products that an
organization makes available to customers.

150. T F
Procter & Gamble has a wider product mix than does Baskin Robbins.

151. T F
The original marketing strategy should not be altered in any way as a
product travels through the stages of the product life cycle because consumers
can become confused.

152. T F
Many products never get beyond the introduction stage.

153. T F
Communicating product benefits to consumers is very important in the
introduction stage.

154. T F
New products seldom generate enough sales to bring immediate profits.

155. T F
Price cuts are typical in a product’s growth stage.

156. T F
During the growth stage, promotion costs rise as a percentage of total

157. T F
Intensive competition causes price increases during the growth stage of
the product life cycle.

158. T F
Distribution outlets become more difficult to secure during the growth
stage of a product’s life cycle because of aggressive competition.

159. T F
Intense price wars are likely to occur during the growth stage of the
product life cycle as competitors attempt to gain market share.

160. T F
Profits decline in the maturity stage, largely because of increased

161. T F
A seller’s profits peak in the maturity stage of a product’s life cycle.

162. T F
Sales peak in a product’s maturity stage.

163. T F
Many products are in the maturity stage of the product life cycle.

164. T F
Changing the product’s quality is a distinct alternative in the maturity
stage of the product life cycle.

165. T F
The marketing mix should be left alone during the maturity stage of the
product life cycle; tampering with it may bring an early death to the product.

166. T F
During a product’s maturity stage, all sales promotion efforts are
focused on consumers.

167. T F
Strategies relating to price become more mixed during a product’s
maturity stage.

168. T F
A business can justify keeping a product as long as it contributes to
profits or enhances the effectiveness of a product mix.

169. T F
Sometimes new marketing channels open up in the decline stage.

170. T F
Promotion decreases in importance during a product’s decline stage.

171. T F
Advertising used in the decline stage may prolong the life of the

172. T F
Sellers can sometimes prolong a product’s life cycle.

173. T F
When an organization introduces a new product, people do not all begin
the adoption process at the same time, nor do they move through the process at
the same speed.

174. T F
Trial is the first stage of the product adoption process.

175. T F
A buyer becomes aware of the product during the evaluation phase of the
product adoption process.

176. T F
In the awareness stage of the product adoption process, the buyer seeks
information about the product.

177. T F
“The people to check with” are the early adopters.

178. T F
The first adopters of a product are the innovators.

179. T F
Early adopters are the first group of consumers to adopt a new product.

180. T F
Laggards are the last to adopt a new product and usually distrust new

181. T F
One of the most common reasons new products fail is because of a
company’s failure to match product offerings to customer needs.

182. T F
Being a product pioneer guarantees a product’s success.

183. T F
The success of launching a new product is based primarily on luck.

184. T F
When a successful brand such as Frito-Lay develops a new product, it
will always succeed.

185. T F
Failure of a new product is always absolute.

186. T F
If a company repositions a relative product failure, that product might
become a successful member of the product line.

187. T F
Following a consistent customer-focused plan does not help new products
become successful.

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