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AGRICULTURE
LANDSCAPE IN
THAILAND

41

Executive summary
What happens to agricultural sector in Thailand?
Indicators for measuring pain points of Thai agriculture
• Labor Shortage
• Lack of Production Planning and Management

Investment opportunities for agricultural companies
• Large agricultural company
• AgTech

Takeaways: Investment incentives for agricultural companies
• Digital Economy Promotion Agency
• Thailand Board of Investment

In Focus: Agricultural article
• “AgTech” important key to unlock problems of Thai agriculture

Complement: Agricultural case studies
• Case studies 1 : Agricultural companies in Thailand along the supply chain
• Case studies 2 : Smart roundtable on sustainable palm oil plantation and logistic management project

References

Contents

02AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND

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04
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12

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35

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11

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03

EXECUTIVE
SUMMARY

Agriculture is one of the most important economic sectors in Thailand as it employs approximately 30% of the country’s
labor force. However, the Thai agricultural sector is facing structural challenges, especially labor shortage and lack of production planning
and management. The labor shortage is evidenced by several indicators such as the ratio of elderly to the total population, and
employment in agriculture (% of total employment). The latter challenge is clearly shown by agricultural total factor productivity.

The structural problems, mentioned above, highlight an investment opportunity for agricultural companies for both large
agricultural company and AgTech. For example, large agricultural companies and AgTechs (most of them are drone technologies) lack
other relevant advanced technologies such as crop seeding and weeding robot. Thus, this highlights business opportunities for
entrepreneurs and technological companies. In term of production planning and management challenge, digital technology, especially
enterprise resource planning (ERP) can be applied to mitigate such challenge by re-engineering business processes, and better
management of all activities along the supply chain. Furthermore, it can be a strong ground for advancing their businesses models to
smart farming. Despite the high demand for Agri-ERP technologies, there is still a handful Thai Agri-ERP companies.

The agricultural companies, technological companies, and investors, who are interested in such investment opportunities may
be eligible to enjoy investment incentives from the investment promotion organizations in Thailand. For example, the Digital Economy
Promotion Agency (depa) provides funding for AgTech and agricultural companies aiming to transform their businesses with digital
technology. Thailand Board of Investment (BOI) provides investment incentives including exemption of corporate income tax, import
duties on machinery, import duties on raw materials used in R&D, import duties on raw materials used in production for export and
non-tax incentives.

Disclaimer: This report was analyzed and collected information before coronavirus pandemic.

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 04

The agricultural sector has played an important role in developing the Thai economy. The evolution of Thailand’s agricultural sector can be seen in the figure below

Traditional Farming Chemical Farming Transformational Farming Technological Farming

What happens to agricultural sector in Thailand?

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 05

In the first era (Agricultural 1.0), prior to 1986, this was the stage of traditional farming. Farmers cultivated their crops with inappropriate knowledge.

The second era (Agricultural 2.0) was between 1986-1999 which farmers gained agricultural knowledge and technique especially chemical products. However, Farming
process was still cultivated with the same pattern. Farmers used this technique to increase their products, at the same time, the sector required more labors.

The third era (Agricultural 3.0) was between 2000 to 2016. This was the transformation period in term of agricultural products quality. In this era, consumers and
producers began realizing the impact of their products because the technique employed was highly chemical. Consumers encountered fatal illness (e.g. cancer) while producer,
especially farmers, lost their core operating asset due to chemical products. Therefore, in this era, the Thai government began to do research and release new rice varieties
based on quality (Poapongsakorn, 2017). The shortage of labor also was initiated in this era due to the effect of labor movement from agricultural industry to other industries.

The latest era (Agricultural 4.0) began in 2016 under the Thailand 4.0 policy by the government. This era allowed farmer to cultivate by adopting new Agriculture
Technology (AgTech) such as Drone for agriculture, Smart technology devices and IOT technology in agricultural sector. AgTech can mitigate some agricultural problems in the
past. For example, AgTech can mitigate agricultural labor shortage by using the Agricultural Drone, and the smart farming system enables the farmers to schedule their crop
plan and consequently manage their resources better than before.

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 06

Agricultural Pain Points
In order to investigate pain points in each stage of supply chain, This bulletin adopt the study of Attavanich et al (2019) as their supply chain model comprehensively

covered agricultural activity. The agricultural supply chain can be divided into 6 main stages as following

Resource
Utilization

Inputs Production Harvest Processing Market

Example for:
– Irrigated Area
– Climate Change
– Soil Quality

Example for:
– Tractors
– Land
– Labor
– Seed, Fertilizer

Subsequently, the pain points in the agricultural sector is identified based on literature review. The research point out many agricultural problems within the supply chain
such as an increase in severity level of disasters from climate change, lack of Irrigation system of agricultural households in some areas, damages caused by pest, different types
of soil quality in each agricultural area, labor shortage from moving to other industries or aging society, high agricultural input cost, lack of land ownership, increasing in
production cost due to long supply chain and imperfect market competition, lack of production planning and management, low value added in agricultural product, low
bargaining power of farmers, etc.

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 07

Resource
Utilization Inputs Production Harvest Processing Market

Unknown Climate Change

Limited Irrigated Area

Unknown Climate Change

Unknown Climate Change

Unknown Climate Change

Limited Irrigated Area

Limited Irrigated Area

Unknown Climate Change

Unknown Pests

Different Types of Soil
Quality in Each Area

Labor Shortage

Labor Shortage

Labor Shortage

Labor Shortage

Labor Shortage

Inequality in Land
Ownership Rights

High Labor Cost

High Labor Cost

Inequality in Land
Ownership Rights

High Input Cost

Lack of Input Management

Lack of Production Planning and Management

Low Productivity

High Production Cost

Low Productivity

Low Productivity

High Production Cost

High Production Cost

Lack of Economies of Scale

Low Value Added

Storage of Agricultural Product Low Market Power

Low Market Power

Low Market Power

Lack of Market Channel
Knowledge

Price Undercutting by
Middleman

Logistic

Chantarat et al. (2019)Attavanich et al. (2019) Soni (2016)Kanjanavisut (2020)Kasikorn Research Center (2019) Rodyong (2019) Ricult (2020)

Agricultural Pain Points along with Supply Chain

Implication: These research studies clearly show that lack of production planning and management
appears in almost every stage of supply chain. This is also a factor which triggers problems in supply
chain including low productivity and high production cost. Moreover, another problem that widely
influences on Thai agriculture is labor shortage as agricultural labors account for approximately 30% of
labors in all economic sectors. Hence, this problem will persist in the near future due to aging
population and shift of labor from agriculture to other industries.

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND

Indicators for measuring pain points of Thai agriculture
This section presents two main pain points from previous section including “Labor

Shortage” and “Lack of Production Planning and Management” that can obviously be described
through specific indicators which represent root of the problems.

Labor Shortage is the first pain point and it intensifies the impacts on Thai agriculture
because the industry is highly labor intensive. This pain point represents through the ratio of
elderly to total population. The elderly group is accounted for 19.22% of total population in 2020
and is estimated to increase to 27.02% of total population in 2030 (Populationpyramid, 2020), the
second highest in ASEAN countries. Apart from ratio of elderly to total population, the
contributions of agriculture to the labor have been diminishing over the past decade which
accounts for 20.44% of total labor force.

The second main pain point is the lack of production planning and management. This is,
in fact, the root cause of two other critical issues including high production cost and low
productivity in their farm activities. This pain point can be represented through agricultural total
factor productivity (TFP), (International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) as cited in Harvard
Dataverse, 2019). TFP is a tool which measures residual growth in the total output of an industry
or national economy that cannot be explained by traditional inputs such as labor. Thailand is one
of ASEAN countries that has high level of agricultural TFP during 2011-2015. However, there is still
a room for improvement and development.

08

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 09

Part 1: Labor Shortage
The ratio of elderly to total population and contributions of agriculture to the labor are the indicators that highlights the labor shortage pain point in Thailand.

5.00

10.00

15.00

20.00

25.00

30.00

35.00

Thailand Cambodia Lao PDR Myanmar Viet Nam Brunei Singapore Malaysia Indonesia Philippines

%

2010 2020 2030

19.22% 20.93%

29.74%
27.02%

Ratio of
elderly to total
population (%)
(2010, 2020, 2030)

Thailand has the second highest number of elderly population in ASEAN countries with an estimate of 27.02% of total population in
2030 after Singapore. Additionally, Attavanich et al. (2019) said that Thai farmers are rapidly aging and almost 40% of farming
households have aging labors working in the farms. This is an important obstacle for agricultural production in the near future.

Source: Populationpyramid, 2020.

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 10

Part 1: Labor Shortage (Cont.)
The ratio of elderly to total population and contributions of agriculture to the labor are the indicators that highlights the labor shortage pain point in Thailand.

0.00 10.00 20.00 30.00 40.00 50.00 60.00 70.00 80.00

Thailand

Cambodia

Lao PDR

Myanmar

Viet Nam

Brunei

Singapore

Malaysia

Indonesia

Philippines

2019 2010

Source: World Bank, 2020.

-20.44%

-25.83%

-22.91%

-22.66%

-24.82%

Employment in
agriculture (% of

total employment)
(2010, 2019)

41.11% 46.09%

20.64% 23.49%

38.25% 30.43%
20192010

Services Industry Agriculture

Employment in the Thai agriculture sector has been diminishing in the
decade between 2010 to 2019, which accounted for 20.44% of total
labor force. The country was ranked after Cambodia, the Philippines,
Malaysia and Indonesia respectively. Decreasing employment in this
sector partly results from labor moving to other economic sector,
especially service sector which increases from 41.11% in 2010 to
46.09% in 2019. This issue clearly indicates the labor shortage pain
point. Thus, there is a room for improvement and development.

Brunei
Darussalam

n/a

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 11

Part 2: Lack of Production Planning and Management
TFP is an indicator of how efficiently agricultural land, and labor (agricultural inputs) are used to produce an agricultural output. it is calculated as the ratio of total
agricultural output to total production inputs. When more output is produced from a constant amount of resources, it means that resources are being used more efficiently,
consequently TFP will be increased. (IFPRI as cited in Harvard Dataverse, 2019). This Indicator can indicate lack of production planning and management pain point in
Thailand.

Singapore
n/a

Thailand
1.5%

Vietnam
1.4%

Lao PDR
2.6%

Cambodia
-0.2%

Myanmar
-5.9%

Indonesia
0.2%

Philippines
-1.2%

Malaysia
0.7%

TFP
GROWTH (%)

(2011-2015)

Agricultural TFP in ASEAN countries varies depending
on economic and technological development in each
country. Thailand is one of the ASEAN countries that
has a high level of agricultural TFP during 2011-2015,
with an estimation of 1.5%. This number is equal to
the average within the Asia and Pacific countries (35
countries). It means that Thailand has agricultural
production efficiency as same as other countries in
ASEAN.

However, There is a room for improvement and
development as can be seen from an increasing in
both production costs and fluctuation in revenue
and value added. Moreover, it confronts a constrain
to enhance productivity due to lack of production
planning and management. (Attavanich et al, 2019;
Rodyong, 2019)

Source: IFPRI as cited in Harvard Dataverse, 2019.

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 12

This section presents opportunities for agricultural companies both large agricultural
company and AgTech to invest in Thai agriculture along with supply chain. These opportunities
are emerged through investment gap of two main pain points in the Thai agricultural sector
including Labor Shortage and Lack of Production Planning and Management.

The first pain point is Labor shortage from either moving to other industries or ageing
society. The shortage affects the availability of agricultural labors, agricultural production process,
and the output in Thai agriculture. Digital technology, especially advanced technology will be an
important driver for unlocking this pain point. However, large agricultural companies and AgTechs
(most of them are drone technologies) lack other relevant advanced technologies such as crop
seeding and weeding robot. Thus, this highlights business opportunities for entrepreneurs and
technological companies.

The second pain point is lack of production planning and management along the supply
chain. This leads to low productivity, high production cost, and inevitably high debt as a results.
Such pain point can be mitigated by using the digital technology, especially enterprise resource
planning (ERP). ERP enables business transformation. It helps companies in this sector to re-
engineer their business processes along with the supply chain. Despite the high demand for Agri-
ERP technologies, there is still a handful Thai Agri-ERP companies. Therefore, agricultural
companies may take this opportunity to invest in the Thai agricultural sector.

Investment opportunities for agricultural companies

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 13

Large
Company

Inputs Production Harvest Processing Market

Part 1: Labor Shortage

Before inducing Thai and foreign large companies to invest in the agricultural sector in Thailand, We have to identify the type of
large companies operating in Thailand which generate employment and income to farmers and improve agricultural activities. This method can
imply an appropriate type of large companies to invest in this sector in Thailand.

Mitr Phol works very closely with cane growers, providing farming advice, technological support, and financial assistance.
• 30,573 families of contract farmers • More than 100,000 people employed
• Generating more than 22 billion baht of income for farmers and communities per year
Key point: The is an effort to motivate labors to come back to the agricultural sector.

SIAM KUBOTA has developed and manufactured a wide range of products and solutions to support farm mechanization.
• Tractors
Key point: This is an effort to substitute labor shortage in the Thai agricultural sector.

• Implements • Combine Harvesters • Transplanters • Tillers

Source: This information bring from their organizational website.

Yanmar provides agricultural machinery and facilities, which is one of the business areas of the company.
• Tractors
Key point: This will substitute labor shortage in the Thai agricultural sector.

• Compact Diesel Engine • Rice Transplanter

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 14

Large
Company

Inputs Production Harvest Processing Market

Part 2: Lack of Production Planning and Management

Source: This information bring from their organizational website.

Malee established Malee Applied Sciences (MAS) in 2017, aiming to enhance capability in innovation research and development for
value added products and services and to support farmer income by generating additional values.
Key point: MAS conducts research and development activities to add values to the traditional products and enables the business to
charge their products at the higher price (e.g. Vintico (Coconut Vinegar)). The value added activities enhance purchasing power of the
company and the company can buy products from farmers at a higher price. Consequently, the farmers will have a higher income.

Royal Umbrella is set up by C.P.Intertrade which operates rice business. It deploys the advanced technology with global standard to
enhance rice manufacturing process.
Key point: Royal Umbrella deploys the advanced technology for improving production planning and management throughout rice
manufacturing process, including glass farms, robots, LED technologies, and smart shading systems for rice cultivation, technologies for
climate control, and data tracking of rice manufacturing process.

MAS

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 15

Part 1: Labor Shortage
Advanced Technology can mitigate this pain point by being a tool that substitutes human labor in Thai agriculture.

Drone

Type of
Advanced Technologies

List of Function
and AgTech

Function of Advanced Technology

AgTech

– Water spraying.
– Pesticide spraying.
– Data collection,

processing and
analyzing.

There are many Thai
AgTech on operating
this business such as

Recommendation for
AgTech Making Investment Decision

Red Ocean for AgTech
• High competitors.
• Potential Thai AgTech

supported by Thai
public organization.

Blue Ocean for AgTech
• Low competitors.
• Lack or a few potential Thai AgTech.
• Labor shortage from moving to other industries or aging

society.

Crop Seeding
Robot

Crop
Scientist

Weeding
Robot

Harvesting
Assistant

– Automated crop
seeding.

Potential Foreign AgTech

AgTech

– Following farmers to
harvest in their farms.

– Autonomously
collect data on
traits for plant
health, physiology,
and stress response.

– Automated non-
chemical weeding.

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 16

Part 2: Lack of Production Planning and Management
Innovative solution through ERP which designs specific solution in all activities along the supply chain for each farm to achieve higher efficiency, higher
yields, higher profitability and complete traceability.

AgTech

Covering from
inputs to market

Inputs

Production

Harvest

Processing

Market
Potential

Foreign ERP AgTech

At present, there are a few Thai ERP AgTech such
as Double M which launches Double M AgriPro
software. It is an enterprise resource management
system for agriculture. The scope of software
includes all business spectrums, including
cultivation, processing, product, sales and product
transportation process.

Apart from Double M, Soft Product is another Thai
ERP AgTech. It launches Softpro Agronomy and
Farmer Control (AFS) which serves financing ERP
system in each farm.

There is a Blue Ocean for Foreign ERP AgTech.
• Low competitors.
• A few potential Thai ERP AgTech.
• Thai Farmers usually adequate planning and

management in their farming activity.

Recommendation for
ERP AgTech Making Investment Decision:

e.g.
IoAT, MIS Report,

Payment Gateway

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 17

Central

• Households holding farm size of 40 rais or more in
many areas.

• Increase in proportion of households using
traditional machinery (labor-intensive machines that
can perform a particular function such as a walking
tractor, a manual pesticide sprayer, a manual
weeding machine, a manual planting machine, and a
threshing machine)

• Access to irrigation system is concentrated in the
lower north.

• Main crop including glutinous rice, corn.

• Households holding small farms.
• High proportions of elderly labors in households (especially

Roi Et, Mahasarakham, and Khon Kaen).
• Increase in the proportion of households using traditional

machinery like Northern region.
• Access to irrigation system is limited.
• Main crop including rice, glutinous rice.

• Households holding farm size of 40 rais or more in many areas.
• High proportions of elderly labors in households (especially Samut

Songkhram, Sing Buri, Nakhon Nayok, Ang Thong).
• Increase in the proportion of households using modern machinery as

a capital-intensive machine that can perform multiple functions such
as a tractor, a motorized pesticide sprayer, a motorized weeding
machine, an automatic planter, a combine harvester.

• High irrigation system access rate
• Although the irrigation area in the Central region can do agriculture

throughout the year, the majority of agricultural households grow
monoculture especially rice.

• Households holding small farms.
• Access to irrigation system is limited.
• Main crop including palm oil, rubber.

Source: Attavanich et al., 2019.

North

Northeast

South
= provinces with the

oldest head of households

Recommendation
This section provides a recommendation for both agricultural companies and technology companies to exploit business opportunities in the agricultural sector. Based on
literature review and data analysis, agricultural companies should invest by considering agricultural characteristic at province level in Thailand. For example, In Northern and
Northeastern regions are appropriate for investing in agricultural advance technology due to an increasing proportion of households using traditional machinery. In the Central
region, although it has an increasing proportion of households using modern machinery, it still has a room for AgTech in specific agricultural field (e.g. Crop Scientist). In the
Southern region, the advanced technologies that are applicable to palm oil and rubber cultivation are appropriate for investment.

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND

Agriculture is one of the core economic sectors in the Thai economy as approximately
30% of labors are employed in this sector. Hence, the Thai government has promoted and
supported this sector ever since they prepared the first National Economic and Social
Development Plan. This section will provide primary information about investment incentives for
agricultural companies. There are two main investment promotion organizations, which are:

Digital Economy Promotion Agency (depa) is a government agency which supports and
promotes the development of digital industry and innovation, and digital technology adoption in
various aspects, including national economy, society, culture, and security. The qualified AgTech
will be eligible to apply for depa packages such as depa Digital Startup Fund, depa Digital
Transformation Fund, depa Digital Infrastructure Fund, and depa Digital Event and Marketing
Fund.

Apart from depa, Thailand Board of Investment (BOI) is another organization that supports
and promotes investment incentives for Thai and foreign agricultural companies to invest in the
Thai agricultural sector. These investment incentives include exemption of corporate income tax,
import duties on machinery, import duties on raw materials used in R&D, import duties on raw
materials used in production for export, and non-tax incentives.

Takeaways: Investment incentive
for agricultural companies

18

19

Investment incentives from depa
Agricultural companies both large agricultural company and AgTech interesting to invest in Thai agriculture can adapt quick win solution in this page for applying investment
incentives from depa. For example,

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND

Quick
Win

depa packages
Providing funding for agricultural companies
through depa packages such as
• depa Startup Fund
• depa Digital Transformation Fund
• depa Digital Infrastructure Fund
• depa Digital Event and Marketing Fund

Thailand Digital Valley
Targeting a group of leading companies, at home and
abroad, for joint investment in digital technology and
innovation in Thailand Digital Valley at Digital Park
Thailand. Comprising 5 buildings as following,
• depa Digital One Stop Service
• Digital Startup Knowledge Exchange Centre
• Digital Edutainment Complex
• Digital Go Global Centre
• Digital Innovation Centre

SMART Visa
Offering foreign experts and investors who wish to enter into Thailand to work or to invest in the
10 S-Curve industries appointed by BOI. As a part of depa responsibility, we will verify
qualifications of foreign experts and investors. If they pass the verification by depa, they will get
SMART visa from BOI. For example,
• Smart S: Having a joint venture with or endorsed by a government agency (in case of not

participating in an incubation or accelerator program).
– Privileges by BOI such as maximum renewable 4-year visa, but not
exceeding the employment/service contract term.

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 20

depa Digital Startup Fund

Conceptual PlanS1 50,000up to THB
(project duration: within 1 year)For the development of

business conceptual plan

LaunchS2 1,000,000up to THB
(project duration: within 3 years)For starting business and

prototype development

GrowthS3
5,000,000up to THB

(project duration: within 3 years)
As bridge financing to
support growth

depa Digital Transformation Fund

Conceptual PlanT1 50,000up to THB
(project duration: within 1 year)For preparing conceptual plan for

digital transformation

Digital TransformationT2
(project duration: within 3 years)For adapting digital technology

to business

1,000,000up to THB

Grant

Grant + Convertible

Convertible

Grant

(Matching Fund 60:40)

depa packages for promoting and supporting agricultural companies to invest in Thai agriculture

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 21

depa Digital Infrastructure Fund

Digital Infrastructure Fund for
Private InvestmentI1

50,000,000up to THB
(project duration: within 3 years)
(Matching Fund 50:50)

Digital Infrastructure Fund for
Government and Public InvestmentI2

200,000,000up to THB
(project duration: within 5 years)

Convertible

As developing digital infrastructure for
private investment

As developing digital infrastructure for
government and public investment

depa Digital Event and Marketing Fund

Digital Event and MarketingE 5,000,000up to THB
(project duration: within 1 year)For organizing promoting activities, business matching,

contest, raising awareness about industrial development
and digital innovation

(Matching Fund 60:40)

Implication

Agricultural companies interesting to invest in
Thai agriculture can apply for depa packages
including
• Digital Startup Fund: AgTech can apply this

package for developing conceptual plan,
starting business or financing to support
growth. (e.g. grant, grant plus convertible)

• Digital Transformation Fund: Agricultural
companies ,that want to transform their
businesses with digital technology, can apply
this package. (e.g. up to 50,000 THB or 1
mil.THB as level of transformation)

• Digital Infrastructure Fund: Agricultural private
companies or government and public
organizations relating to agricultural activities
can apply this package for constructing
building or facility for agricultural activities.
(e.g. up to 50 mil.THB or 200 mil.THB as type
of organizations)

• Digital Event and Marketing: Agricultural
companies ,that want to organize promotional
activities or other marketing activities, can
apply this package. (e.g. up to 5 mil.THB)

D2
Digital

Innovation
Centre

[40,000 sq.m.]

D1
Digital Startup
Knowledge
Exchange
Centre
[4,500 sq.m.]

D3
Digital

Edutainment
Complex

[20,000 sq.m.]

D4
Digital

Go Global
Centre

[20,000 sq.m.]

DO
depa Digital
One Stop
Service
[1,500 sq.m.]

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 22

Thailand Digital Valley, Digital Park Thailand (EECd)
Located in the Digital Park Thailand and covered 60,000 sqm (30 rai), it is established to promote and support the new S-Curve industry which will enhance competitiveness
and propel digital transformation of the country. Approximately 60% of the area will be designated for 5G lab, cloud innovation lab, AI design lab, and data analytics center.
This is an opportunity for agricultural companies both large agricultural company and AgTech using these facilities to develop their businesses with digital technology and
connect with other global tech firms to enhance their business opportunities.

For example, Comprising
• Smart EEC Intelligence Operation

Center (IOC)
• Digital Tech Office and Lab
• Co-Working Space
• Digital Tech Office and Labs

For example,
Comprising
• Knowledge

Exchange
• Lifestyle

Community
• Co-Working Space

For example, Comprising
• 5G Application Lab
• Cloud Innovation Centre
• IoT Innovation Centre
• AI Lab
• Maker Space 10,000 sq.m.

For example,
Comprising
• Product & Service

Design &
Prototyping

• Robotic School
• Drone School

For example,
Comprising
• Go Global

Office
• Co-Working

Space
• Acceleration

Centre

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 23

SMART Visa
SMART Visa is a new type of visa designed to attract skilled foreign workers and investors to accelerate the development of the country’s targeted industries. (e.g. Agriculture
and Biotechnology). As a part of depa responsibility, we will verify qualifications of foreign experts and investors. If they pass the verification, they will be eligible for SMART
visa from BOI. (Thailand Board of Investment, 2018)

SMART T
(Talent)

SMART I
(Investor)

SMART E
(Executive)

SMART S
(Startup)

Qualification
Minimum income of no less than
100,000 Baht/month or 50,000
THB/month, in case of having contract
with a startup, or being retired experts.

Minimum investment of at least
5 mil.THB.

Minimum salary of no less than
200,000 THB or equivalent per
month. (inclusive of other benefits
and welfares)

Application for 2-year, 1-year and
6-month visa are available.

Verification by depa
Being highly skilled experts in the fields of
science and technology.

Employed in the targeted industries.

Investing in technology-based
manufacturing or service company in the
targeted industries.

Working for technology-based
manufacturing or service companies in
the targeted industries.

Participating in an incubation or accelerator
program or similar programs endorsed by a
relevant government agency.

Having a joint venture with or endorsed by
a government agency.

Companies that have been set up being in
a targeted industry.

Source: Thailand Board of Investment, 2018 and 2020.

Privileges by BOI

For Example,

For more information: Thailand’s SMART Visa Attracting Foreign Talents & Technologies

• Maximum renewable 1, 2 or 4-year
visa. (as the case may be.)

• No work permit required for
working.

• 90-day reporting to the Immigration at
the One Stop Service Center extended
to 1 year.

• No re-entry permit required.
• Spouse and children granted the right

to stay and work in Thailand with no
work permit required

• Access to a fast-track service at
international airports in Thailand
(where available).

24

Agriculture and Agricultural Products Investment Incentives from BOI
BOI has been pursuing numerous initiatives aimed at assisting Thai and foreign companies to invest in Thai agriculture through basic investment incentives including exemption
of corporate income tax, import duties on machinery, import duties on raw materials used in R&D, import duties on raw materials used in production for export and non-tax
incentives. For example,

Source: Thailand Board of Investment, 2019.

A1 A2 A3 A4 B1 B2

Exemption of
corporate

income tax

Exemption of
import duties on

machinery

Exemption of
import duties on

raw materials
used in R&D

Exemption of import duties
on raw materials used in
production for export

Non-tax
incentives

8-years
no cap

8-years

5-years

3-years

A1

Example of General List of Agricultural Activities Eligible for Investment Promotion.

Knowledge-based activities focusing on R&D and design to
enhance the country’s competitiveness.

A2 Infrastructure activities for the country’s development,
activities using advanced technology to create value-added,
with no or very few existing investments in Thailand.

A3 High technology activities which are important to the
development of the country, with a few investments already
existing in Thailand.

A4 Activities with lower technology than A1-A3 but which add
value to domestic resources and strengthen the supply
chain.

B1
Supporting industry that does not use high technology, but
is still important to the value chain.

B2

• Manufacture of biological fertilizers, etc.
• Manufacture of modern agricultural products or services

related to modern agriculture.

A Guide to The Board of Investment 2019

• Economic forest plantation (except for Eucalyptus).

• Rice grading must use advanced technology only.
• Manufacture of Natural extracts using advanced technology.

• Manufacture of primary processed rubber.
• Manufacture of products from agricultural by-products or

agricultural waste.

• Crop drying and silo facilities.
• Cold storage, or cold storage and cold storage

transportation.
• None.

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 25

In Focus: Agricultural article

“AgTech” Important Driver to Unlock Thai Agricultural Problems
Agriculture is one of the most important economic sectors in
the Thai economy as it employs approximately 30% of the
country’s labor force. However, Thai agricultural sector
encounters with structural problems such as increased
vulnerability to climate risk and climate change, inequality of
accessing to water resource, lack of land ownership (40% of
farmers either own a small land or no land), rapidly ageing
farmers, increasing production costs and income volatility as
a result of long supply chain and imperfect market
competition. (Attavanich et al., 2019)

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 26

As mentioned, Thailand is facing several structural challenges. The
structural issues can be mitigated by applying digital technology (particularly AgTech)
into the supply chain activities. This research aims to investigate the current Thai
AgTech applications and their roles in solving such structural issues along with the
supply chain activities. The Thai AgTech application is investigated by searching a word
“เกษตร” (Chantarat et al, 2019) and “Agri” on Play Store application. Furthermore, the
Thai AgTech application, which are currently promoted and supported by the Digital
Startup Institute, Digital Economy Promotion Agency (depa) were also be included.
(Figure 1)

The results include 111 Thai AgTech applications on the Play Store (data
as of April 2020). The majority of these application were application that provide
agricultural knowledge (e.g. Cultivation Handbook, Agricultural Product Price, etc.),
agricultural news and database.

• Search wording “เกษตร”
250 Apps (Thai AgTech 107 apps)

• Additionally Search wording
“Agri”
250 Apps (Thai AgTech 4 apps) Matching

Thai AgTech with
Supply Chain

(Represent Mitigation of
Agricultural Pain Points)

• Thai AgTechs were
promoted by Digital Startup
Institute (e.g. 6 Startups)

The research also found a handful of agricultural financial service
applications on the Play Store. So far, there are no applications that support neither
agricultural products processing activities nor agricultural supply chain activities on the
Play Store. The AgTech applications that were supported by the Digital Startup Institute
(depa) are supporting the agricultural input and productivity. The examples of AgTech
supported by depa include Tavada Corp, HG Robotics (Drone for Agriculture), Komomi,
SPsmartplants (Smart technology devices especially Internet of Things (IoT) which is
applicable to the agricultural production process and product). (Figure 2)

By grouping the AgTech application based on functions, there are quite
comprehensive of agricultural supply chain activities except processing of agricultural
products. Examples of Thai AgTech functions and their application along with supply
chain include (Figure 3)

1. Resource Utilization: using the application as weather forecast (Ricult,
FarmAI, YaraFarmWeather), quality and area of soil and water resource analysis (กดดูรู้ดิน
และกดดูรู้น ้ำ), pest diagnosis (SuperFarm)

2. Inputs: using the application as agricultural land area analysis (GAP and
Organic Zoning, Ling), fertilizer calculation (FCS: ค้ำนวณปุ๋ยสั่งตัด, เพื่อนเกษตร), input
market (TALAD, Getztrac, ยำรำพรีเมียมคลับ)

3. Production and Harvest: using the application as crop planning and/or
planting calendar (Ricult, FarmAI, Chaokaset, ฟำร์ม D), on-off control of agricultural
production process device (เกษตรยิ ม, FarmPress), smart agricultural operating system
(SPsmartplants)

4. Market: using the application as agricultural product market (Farmto,
TALAD, Cropperz, เกษตรโพส, ร้ำนฟำร์มสุข)

Figure 1: Methodology of this study

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 27

Resource
Utilization

Inputs Production Harvest Processing Market

Support Factor

Depending on
Judgment

Figure 2: AgTech app in each supply chain activity (Example)

Note: is example of AgTechs that were promoted and supported under Digital Startup Institute, depa.

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 28

Figure 3: AgTech function in each supply chain activity (Example)

Resource
Utilization Inputs Production Harvest Processing Market

Agricultural Information
/ News

Agricultural
Price

Expert / Advisory

Support Factor

Agricultural Database
(e.g. Farmer List, Certification List)

Agricultural
E-Learning

Weather/Humidity
Forecasting

Credit
Scoring

Accounting
Calculator

Soil Quality Analysis/
Soil Testing Lab

Pest / Crop Diseases
Diagnosis

Water / Soil Type Area

Agricultural Area
Measurement

Fertilizer Mixing
Calculators

Input
Marketplace

Production Planning

Depending on
Judgment

Crop Calendar

Automatic Sensor Control
(e.g. Light, Water Spray)

Agricultural Product
Marketplace

Advanced Technology
(e.g. Drone)

Operation Systems
(e.g. Water Irrigation, Environment Control)

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 29

The result of this article presents how AgTech mitigates Thai agricultural
challenges. Weather forecast can be done through the use of the application. Thus,
the farmers can handle climate changes more appropriately. AgTech, particularly,
Drone can substitute labors, who shifted to other industries. Consequently, the labor
shortage in the agricultural sector can be mitigated. Furthermore, AgTech enables firms
to efficiently plan their activities along the supply chain. Thus, the cost of production
can be reduced. Moreover, the online marketing channel allows farmers to sell directly
to customers. This can decrease the bargaining power of middleman and fluctuation
of farmer’s income.

In conclusion, AgTech plays an important role in unlocking structural
problems and leading to sustainable development in the agricultural sector in
Thailand.

Notation: The classification of AgTech Function/Application may vary according to
perspective and definition.

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 30

Complement: Agricultural case studies

Case Studies 1

Agricultural companies
in Thailand along the
supply chain

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 31

This section investigates the role of digital technology at each stage of
the Thai agricultural supply chain. The first stage of the supply chain is research and
development (R&D). R&D plays an essential role in enhancing the innovativeness of
product and services. A good example can be seen from Malee Applied Sciences
(MAS), a subsidiary company of Malee group (Thailand). MAS puts their efforts in R&D
activities and bring out new products by adding new values to them. Another example
is JuiceInnov8, a deep tech startup. JuiceInnov8 develops sugar reduction technology
for juice industry to produce 100% juice with less sugar and lower calories.

As for the input phrase, the structural issues can be minimized by using
both offline efforts and technology. Examples of companies using offline method are
Mitr Phol and CHIA TAI. Motr Phol developed contract farmers system in order to
attract farmers by the guaranteed income. CHIA TAI produces and distributes seeds,
fertilizer and plant protection products. On the other hand, Yanmar provides
technological solutions , such as agricultural machineries and facilities, to tackle labor
shortage.

Vintico Coconut Vinegar by MAS
is created from the purest traditional Thai coconut source.
(Malee Group, 2020)

Box 1

In the resource utilization, climate change is harmful to the Thai
agricultural sector. Higher world population intensity, motorization, and
industrialization are intensifying the climate. Thus, cultivation decisions can be
challenging. AgTech, such as Ricult, can mitigate this problem by using satellites in
combination with weather data. This helps farmers make better cultivation decisions.

Box 3

Example of Seed
Business under the
“Aeroplane” Brand
from CHIA TAI
(CHIA TAI, 2020)

Box 3

Box 2

Ricult App
(Weather
Function)
(Ricult, 2020)

Although there are many agricultural machineries and facilities such as
tractor, transplanter, and so on, the area coverage can be challenging. Advanced
technology may be able to overcome such challenges. For example, Tevada, an
AgTech, provides agricultural drone for farmers and their products can support famers
in various activities such as water spraying, pest control spraying, and so on.

Box 4

Agricultural Drone
by Tevada Corp
(Tevada Corp, 2019)

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 32

In the Market stage, Online marketplace for agricultural products is one
of the distribution channels for farmers to sell their agricultural product and reduce
middleman power. For example, DGT Farm (developed by the National Bureau of
Agricultural Commodity and Food Standards (ACFS)) developed an online marketplace
for farmers and customers through a specific function such as online business
matching. In addition to DGT Farm, CO-OP Click by Agricultural Co-operative
Federation of Thailand is another online marketplace for agricultural cooperatives,
their members, and customers. Moreover, Cropperz (an AgTech company) connects
farmers and customers through their online platform.

Box 5

DGT Farm by ACFS
https://www.dgtfarm.com/

However, the companies with capable resources may expand their R&D
activities to the other stages of the agricultural supply chain. For instance,
Mitr Phol, Royal Umbrella, Tipco and Malee have covered R&D to processing stages.

Rice Manufacturing Process by Royal Umbrella
(Positioningmag, 2018)

Box 6

Furthermore, AgTechs ,like Evergrow, KoMoMi, and Spsmartplants, have
covered production to harvest stages by providing smart farm solution. Their services
are automatic operation for farm such as water irrigation, environment’s control.

Box 7

KoMoMi
Farm Automatic
Operation
(KoMoMi, 2020)

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 33

Lastly, Farming activity is often challenging and one solution is not ‘one-
size-fits-all’ for all farms. Hence, Enterprise resource planning (ERP) which is an
innovative solution for designing activities along the supply chain. It has a role in
improving farm management. For example, AgTech, like Double M, provides farm
management system through Double M AgriPro software.

Box 8

Double M AgriPro software
• Cloud computing
• Supply chain system
• Farm management system
• Production management system
• Financial management system
• Human resource management system
(Double M Technology Management, 2016)

• Online
marketplace

• Contract farmer

• Agricultural machineries
and facilities

La
rg

e
Co

m
pa

ni
es

/G
ov

er
nm

en
t A

ge
nc

ie
s • Product

innovation

• Seed, Fertilizer,
Plant protection

Resource
Utilization Inputs Production Harvest Processing Market

34AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND

Figure 1: Agricultural companies in Thailand along the supply chain (Example)

• ERP management

• Weather forecasting

R&D

• Sugar reduction
technology with
our non-GM
microbes

Ag
Te

ch
s

• Advanced Technology

• Smart Farm

• Online
marketplace

MAS

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 35

Complement: Agricultural case studies

Case Studies 2

Smart roundtable on
sustainable palm oil
plantation and logistic
management project

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 36

Industry Outlook and Obstacles
The Smart RSPO Palm Oil Plantation and Logistic Management Project

has been running since 2018, under the support of Suksomboon Group (the largest
palm oil producer in the eastern region of Thailand) and Digital Economy Promotion
Agency (depa). The traditional cultivation of palm in Thailand is not efficient,
particularly in term of production planning and overall management. From the
farmers’s point of view, the ineffective planning may be acceptable since the farmers
can still enjoy their income. However, the ineffective cultivation planning impacts the
palm oil industry. A report by the Smart RSPO Palm Oil Plantation and Logistic
Management project shows that the unqualified cultivation impacts all stages along the
supply chain.

• In the harvesting stage, the lack of input management affects the quality of crop
products as the information, used in the harvesting process, is from the defective
history recording. Furthermore, the lack of understanding of cultivation planning
has a significant impact on their cost management. For example, using chemical
products to maintain soil surface leads to unnecessary costs in their production
and processing stage.

• In the processing, packaging, and logistic stage (divided according to figure 3), small
palm planters experience a high production cost (figure1), which can be seen from
a low average palm yield per rai and diminutive percentage of palm oil. This is due
to poor information sharing since the early stage. Thus, it is challenging to conduct
accurate production planning. As a result, the quality of Thai palm oil is inferior as
the oil extraction rate (OER) of Thai production is around 17%

which is lower than competitors in the same region ,like Malaysia and Indonesia,
where the oil extraction rate is around 20-21%. The accumulation of high cost
during production and processing stage leads to a higher price of the final
products.

• Eventually, the bargaining power of producer stage decreases as Thai oil producers
have to bear higher cost of production. Moreover, The quality of palm oil industry
is below the world standard. Currently, there is only 10% of palm oil producer in
Thailand ,who complies with Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) standard.

Figure 1: Existing problem during each stage of supply chain

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 37

According to the abovementioned problems, it is clear that Palm Planters/ Producer in
Thailand are facing challenges. It is, therefore, important that all stakeholders in the
supply chain improve their performance to be in line with the global standard, RSPO
(the standard for quality of Thai palm oil through agricultural technology).

Solution through agricultural technology & sustainable palm oil certificate
Figure 2: RSPO standard Flow

Suksomboon Group is the project owner, who started this project by engaging around
200 small palm planters under the name of Eastern Palm Planters Group. The project
is considered as a tool for small planters to be certified. Under this scheme, the
planters must apply agricultural technology to their cultivations and join the Fresh
Fruit Bunches (FFB) supply chain through the mobile application. The objective of

integration is to promote and ensure that small palm planter’s performance will be
guaranteed by Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil Standard. By the time that Eastern
Palm Planters Group is authenticated, they will receive a Group Certification. At this
point, The advantage passes onto the small palm planters as their crop will also be
accepted internationally. (Figure 3)

Figure 3: The procedure of agricultural technology along FFB supply chain

processing, packaging, and logistic stage

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 38

Table 1: The procedure of agricultural technology along FFB supply chain

FFB Stage Process Former Procedure RSPO Standard Procedure

Farm

1. Recording System Record the information by using the hardcopy
which requires numbers of paper and sizeable
storage area.

Record the information as digital data which can
access through online channel and mobile
application.

2. Liaison and Inform Directly inform to members through mobile phone
or involved authorities.

The information/news is informed through mobile
application which reduces work/labor force.

3. Tracking System Require lots of labor force to oversee planters’
performance with prolonged duration.

Convert part of tracking system to mobile
application which reduces time spending/ amount
of labor force and operating expenditure.

Harvest

4. Purchasing System between Planters and
Manufacturer

Harvesting Period depends on planters’ decision
and sell to manufacturer directly.

Provide conveniences to both planters and
manufacturer as the purchasing deal will be
recognized by the database from tracking system.

5. Crop Sorting/Sizing/Grading in Harvesting
Stage

Harvesting Period depends on planters’ decision,
quality of palms crop is low.

The quality of palm crop reaches standard due to
implementation of agricultural technology.

Process
Package
Logistic

6. Production Planning and Input
Management

Intricated production planning and input
management. Manufacturer has to buy crop from
small planters with unpredicted time and quality.

The system is more maturity as there is data from
the implementation of agricultural technology.
Manufacturer knows exactly about the amount,
quality ,and time of palm crops.

Marketing
7. Supervision of RSPO Audit for Group
Certification

RSPO Auditor verify through hardcopy document. RSPO Auditors verify through digital data which can
be tracked, thus, improving accuracy and
timeliness of data

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 39

The study divides FFB Supply Chain into 6 stages. Agricultural technology was used as
tools to migrate agricultural issue of each step. In term of Smart RSPO Palm Oil
Plantation and Logistic Management Project, Agricultural technology was applied since
the beginning of the project. By taking 200 planters who request for group certification
from RSPO into consideration, the farm process requires an innumerable amount of
paper record, which requires sizable storage to keep hardcopy document. Besides, the
liaison and tracking between members and authorities in the group are directly through
the mobile phone that use a number of labor forces to oversee planters’
performance. In fact, this is a time-consuming task. After applying the technology, the
working hours and resources requirement dramatically decrease. Furthermore, the
efficiency of palm cultivation increases since the farming information was recorded as
digital data through smart farming technology. Then this data can be accessed easily
through mobile phone.

• In the harvesting stage, there are two significant issues -purchasing system between
planters and manufacturer, and the poor quality of fresh palm branches
(including palm sorting, sizing, and grading). In practical, this stage depends on
palm planters, and manufacturers do not have control over the cultivation time.
Thus, it is challenging for manufacturers to make a purchasing plan. Moreover, due
to different cultivation time, the quality of palm crops cannot be guaranteed. Not
only those challenges, but the different size of their palm branches make it is
difficult for the manufacturers to sort the palm crops. The challenges mentioned
above are solved by using the tracking system. The tracking system enables the
manufacturers to monitor the data from the mobile application. In doing so, they
can recognize the harvest time and buy only from the qualified planters

This brings out an equal quality of palm crops as a consequence.
• In the process, package, and logistic stages, the earlier procedure lead to

complicated production planning and input management. A manufacturer must
buy crops from small planters with unpredictable time and quality. Thus, the
manufacturer cannot conduct efficient production and resources plans. This leads
to a higher cost of production. When the RSPO palm oil plantation and logistics
management project is implemented, the manufacturer knows exactly about the
quantity, quality, and time of palm crops. This enables them to plan and manage
the production smoothly by using both mobile application and IoT or QR
technology.

• Finally, in the marketing process, the earlier procedure shows that planters and
RSPO auditor faced difficulty in achieving RSPO standard. RSPO auditor verifies the
standard through hardcopy document. After the project was implemented, RSPO
auditor verifies more efficiently through digital data which can be tracked; thus,
improving accuracy and timeliness of data. Thus, the lead time for certification is
shorter, and the farmers can enjoy the benefits of RSPO certification sooner.
Moreover, the accreditation stimulates changes in the processes and improve
efficiency within the farms. The higher productivity leads to lower costs, and the
farmers enjoy more margin as a result. Besides the efficiency aspect, RSPO
certification also increases the bargaining power of the farmers.

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 40

Figure 4: RSPO standard procedure The Outcome of Smart RSPO Palm Oil Plantation and Logistic Management Project
Smart RSPO Palm Oil Plantation and Logistic Management Project involves many key
stakeholders of both upstream and downstream in the agricultural industry. As a result
of the project, small Thai palm planter enjoys the benefits of certification. Their crop
is accepted internationally, and the price of palm crop increased by 0.2 baht per
kilogram. The cost of resources used for the RSPO standard decreased by 15%. Lastly,
the last key stakeholder, the manufacturers, gained additional 0.5 baht per kilogram of
palm oil.

Figure 5: Example of mobile application functions

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 41

References
นภษร ศรีวิลำศ. (2561). ทายาทรุ่นที่ 2 บรรจงร้อยเป็นมาลี ทายาทรุ่นสองของน้า้ผลไม้มาลี กับการสานฝันที่มีตั้งแต่ 6 ขวบ และการต่อยอดธุรกิจด้วยแนวทางที่พ่อสอนให้คิดถึงคนอื่น. Retrieved from

ใส่ใจมาอย่างดี มาลีกับก้าวที่มากกว่าน้ำผลไม้

Attavanich, W., Chantarat, S., Chenphuengpawn, J., Mahasuweerachai, P., & Thampanishvong, K. (2019). Farms, Farmers and Farming: a Perspective through Data and
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Chantarat, S., Chinnachodteeranun, R., Pantakua, K., Ratanavararak, L., Rittinon, C., Sa-ngimnet, B., & Unahalekhaka, A. (2019). Digital Technology: Improve the Quality of
Living of Thai Farmers. Retrieved from https://www.pier.or.th/wp-content/uploads/2019/10/aBRIDGEd_2019_019.pdf

CHIA TAI. (2020). Seed business under the “Aeroplane” brand from CHIA TAI. Retrieved from
https://www.chiataigroup.com/en/products-list/Mzg=/ตรำเคร่ืองบิน

Double M Technology Management. (2016). Double M Agripro Software Retrieved from http://www.doublemtech.com/double-m-agri-pro/

International Food Policy Research Institute. (2019). Agricultural Total Factor Productivity (TFP), 1991-2015: 2019 Global Food Policy Report Annex Table 4. Washington, DC: IFPRI [dataset].
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Kanjanavisut, K. (2020). EIC Recommends Uplifting Thailand’s Agricultural Sector with Agritech. Retrieved from
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Kasikorn Research Center. (2019). AgriTech: the Way to Survive Modern Agriculture. Retrieved from
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KoMoMi. (2020). Farm Automatic Operation. Retrieved from https://www.komomi.net/

AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 42

References (Cont.)
Malee Group. (2018). มาลี กรุ๊ป ปั้นนวัตกรรม FoodTech ลุยตลาดโลก. Retrieved from https://www.malee.co.th/en/news/มำลี กรุ๊ป ปั้นนวัตกรรม FoodTech ลุยตลำดโลก

Malee Group. (2020). Vintico Coconut Vinegar. Retrieved from https://www.malee.co.th/en/mas

Mitr Phol Group. (2020). Support System for Cane Farmers. Retrieved from https://www.mitrphol.com/page_detail.php?p=4&topic=14

Poapongsakorn, N. (2017). Transformation of The Thai Agriculture in The Last Three Decades. Retrieved from

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AGRICULTURE LANDSCAPE IN THAILAND 43

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Investment Bulletin
Digital Economy Promotion Agency (depa) was established by virtue of the Digital
Development for Economy and Society Act B.E. 2560 (A.D. 2017) promulgated on 23
January 2017, to take the role of a government agency, whose status was a legal entity
and not a government service according to the National Government Organization Act
or a state enterprise according to the Budget Procedure Act and none other.

depa aimed to support and promote the development of digital industry and
innovation, support and promote digital technology adoption which benefit the
national economy, society, culture, and security.

This paper contains specific information about agricultural landscape in Thailand. It will
help investors and companies to make investment decision in agricultural business in
Thailand.

Issue 1/2020

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