Chat with us, powered by LiveChat MGMT DISC 1 | Gen Paper


Karen BRO

Descriptive Statistics: In six sentences or more, explain how you would use the descriptive statistical procedure(s) at work or in your personal life. 

The concept of “descriptive statistics” refers to analyze, summarize, and present a data set derived from a sample or an entire population. From my understanding they do not provide a conclusion rather a description of the findings from the data that was analyzed (OpenStax, n.d.).  

In my personal life – for example I recently used descriptive statistics when I was told what the median home price in my area was, which was based on the prices of the total homes sold in my neighborhood during the previous thirty days. With that information I applied for a loan and set that amount as the price limit for my home search. 

2. Can you find examples in the popular press of misuse of statistics? 

With the current conflict in Russia, we have been “floaded” with information, but not always presented accurately. As matter of fact based on unreliable data because the data is based on loaded questions from unreliable sources (Lumen, n.d.). For example, it said that as much as “80% of Russian support the war in Ukraine” (Treisman, 2022). But perhaps, the question (as also reported) is being manipulated by wording it in such way to induce the prevalence of the answer intended by the surveyor. It is not the same to ask, “do you support the military operation to protect Easter-Ukrainian people subjected to genocide?” than asking, “do you support the unprovoked war leashed against Ukraine?” 

3. In your own words, describe “Chart Junk”. 

Chart Junk is anything presented in a chart besides data that is harmful and unnecessary. That basically does not clarify the intended message rather complicates it’s understanding. The “extra information” alters and/or distracts the reader from understanding the information. It is said a good display of data must be clear and simply.

When should Chart Junk be avoided? When is it useful? 

A Chart Junk should almost always be avoided in business or academic settings, since it is easier to rely on clear, easy to read visualizations. If a chart is difficult to read or has information that distract the reader from the topic (by emphasizing in unnecessary information) or stops the reader from reacting on time to the information and its quality, then it should not be included (Kosara, 2010). 

However, magazines or tv commercials that want to get the reader’s attention or to get their message across, could use a Chart Junk. In these cases, is okay as long as the chart does not change the information in other way more than the visuals added only make the chart more attractive or impactful. 
Include an image or link to an example of the worst data display you have seen at work or in the media (not in Wainer’s article). 

Georgia Covid-19 cases chart –


The above chart from the State of Georgia, not only omitted data but also presented the information in different ways to imply scaling down on Covid-19 cases (Smith et al., 2020).  

Wainer gives rules for how to make bad charts & graphs. Which of Wainer’s rules describes what’s so bad about your example? 

The chart above represents an example of rule #3, which talks about altering data which has a natural order. The days of the calendar have a natural order which in the chart have been altered – April 27 comes after April 28, May 2 comes after May 6, and so on. Also, the bars representing each state are ordered different throughout the chart, possibly to mislead and give notion of improvement, “Hall” goes at the beginning in April 28, but at the end on April 27, and so on. 

4. Looking at the data broken down in this way, we see that Hospital B has a higher success rate in all three categories of patients but when averaged all together, Hospital A has the higher overall survival rate. Based on the numbers presented, which hospital do you think is superior in cardiac surgery? 

In my opinion by looking at the data more in depth, there’s more to the story. As seen in Rule# 10 of “How to Make Bad Charts”, incomplete charts without proper labels, or charts that do not tell the whole story, can change the perception of the data. Since the condition of the patients of the sample collected at both hospital is widely different, the 54% of survival rate on Hospital B is lower.  

The number of patients in fair conditions is considerably higher in Hospital A, and considerably lower in Hospital B. And, in Hospital B, the condition of patients in critical condition is considerably higher than in Hospital A. Therefore, vastly different outcomes are expected. Still, Hospital B outperforms Hospital A in every category.  


Kosara, R. (2010, April 22). Chart junk considered useful after all. Eagereyes.

LumenLearning. (n.d.). The use and misuse of statistics | Public speaking. (n.d.). Ch. 1 introduction – Introductory business statistics | OpenStax.

Smith, M., Long, C., & Amy, J. (2020, May 20). States accused of fudging or bungling COVID-19 testing data. AP NEWS.

Treisman, R. (2022, April 18). What russians think of the war in Ukraine, according to an independent pollster.

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