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Neurotransmitters Chart

Function (Excitatory or Inhibitory)

Locations

Receptors

Effects of Deficient

Effects of Surplus

Agonist Drug

Antagonist Drug

Acetylcholine

Acetylcholine can have both excitatory or inhibitory functions. Works by acting as a substance in the nervous system.

Neurotransmitter Junctions and the central nervous system

Muscarinic & Nicotinic

Linked to dementia & Parkinson’s

Excess salivation, lacrimation, blurry vision, linked to Alzheimer’s

Phenyleprine

Atripine

Dopamine

Dopamine plays important roles in executive function, motor control, motivation, arousal, reinforcement, and reward. Acts as inhibitory

Substantia nigra, Hypothalamus

Dopamine receptors are rhodopsin-like 7-transmembrane receptors (also called G protein–coupled receptors) that mediate the central and peripheral actions of dopamine.

Deficiency has been linked to problems with memory, anxiety disorders, muscle cramps, stiffness and mood swings

Aggression, drug addiction, poor impulse control, binge eating.

Pramipexole, ropinirole, rotigone and apomorphine

prochlorperazine, chlorpromazine

Endorphins

Can act as analgesics and also act as sedatives.

Peripheral nervous system and central nervous system

The μ receptors bind morphine, δ receptors enkephalins, κ receptors dynorphin and ε receptors β-endorphin.

Aches, pain, depression, mood swings

Increased euphoria, sexual drive, increased appetite

Morphine

Naltrexone

GABA

Acts as an inhibitory of the CNS

Brain

GABAB, GABAA

Feelings of anxiety, stress, , worry, insomnia, epilepsy

Sleepiness, eating disorders

Barbiturates

Bicuculline, securinine, metrazol

Glutamate

Excitatory, involved in memory storage

Found in all CNS structures

L-Glutamate

Schizophrenia

Can cause neuron death

Kainate

Ectasy

PCP

Glycine

Inhibitory

Brain stem

GlYRS

Communication disturbances

GI disturbances

Not known

Strichnine

Norepinephrine

Excitatory

Plays a role in fight or flight, affects attention

Locus coerulelus

Receptors are inhibitory and excitatory

Alpha 1 and Alpha 2

Beta 1, Beta 2, Beta 3

Anxiety, depression, changes in blood pressure

Excessive sweating, irregular heartrate, shakiness

Clonidine, Despiramine

Atenolol,

Deserpine

Serotonin

Inhibitory

Adequate amounts are required for a stable mood

Raphe nuclei, pons and medulla

5HT1, 5HT2, 5HT3, 5HT4, 5HT5

Decreased immune system response

Diarrhea, fever, muscular rigidity

Fluoxetine, Fenfluramine

Reserpine

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