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Assignment: Research Theory for Qualitative Studies

THE IMPACT OF MEDIA BIAS

OLUSEGUN GBOLADE

Capella University

RSCH_7868 – Qualitative Design and Analysis

Dr Susan Saurage-Altenloh

Spring, 2022

Research Theory

Media has been a gained an increased attention in research due to significant impact on human experience of the population. In United States, approximately Fifty-seven percent of the American population think that the media is very biased and Americans are overwhelmed by the speed and volume of information (Hamborg, Donnay & Gipp, 2019). However, media bias impact are distinct of the general population because it has the ability to potentially affect the beliefs of consumers and altering their behaviors (Spinde et al., 2020). In this case, it is fundamental to gain idea of the Impact of media bias on the information received by general audience. In order to understand this impact, a qualitative research design can be the most suitable research. The paper aims to discuss elements of a theory for qualitative research, a theory that supports the proposed study and practical implication of the research on stakeholders of the research in following paragraphs.

Key Elements of the Theory

Media bias has a significant role in influencing the beliefs of consumers and altering their behaviors. However, interpretation of the information portrayed by media primarily based on emotions, individuals motivations, ability to process information and social pressure (Hamborg, Donnay & Gipp, 2019). In this current context, it is crucial to understand the impact of media bias on the information. In this case, qualitative study would be most suitable study because it focused on the human experience of the participants of the research. Since qualitative research enable researchers to obtain values, beliefs and perception of distinct participants of the research, it can be most suitable in the context of research focused on media bias (Mohajan, 2018). Grounded theory approach would be most suitable theoretical component of qualitative research that can be applied in this context. Grounded theory is a theoretical approach that aims to discover the meanings of social actions, interactions and experience (Qureshi, H. A., & Ünlü, Z. (2020). The major component of the research is own explanation or interpretation of the event that provide meaning to any events because experience is unique and hence, professionals usually apply inductive approach. In this case, since impact of media bias on the information received by general audience would be the research aim, grounded theory of qualitative study would be most appropriate to gather idea of distinct factors (Chun Tie, Birks & Francis, 2019). Other components of the theory are code, concept, category, and theme. Jamali (2018), reported that coding of the information is foundation of qualitative research driven by grounded theory approach because it supports professionals to make their own coding that constantly stimulates the conceptual ideas regarding incidences. On the other hand, the themes developed by the conceptual ideas support researchers to present particular perceptions or any experience researchers consider relevant to the research question (Braun & Clarke, 2022). In this context, the themes developed by researchers will support social researchers to ensure distinct perception and experience suggested by the participants.

How Theory Supports the Proposed Research

Grounded theory would be most suitable to obtain data from the proposed study of media bias. For example, it is common instances that Media coverage has major impact on political segmented, health perception by presenting what they want to see while significant issues are overlooked. It indicated a partiality or presentation of information in unfair manner (Strömbäck et al., 2020). Therefore, many population, especially political segments have inclination to see media as a means of altering the behavior of the general population towards any political party while health care professionals or government see media as a means of creating awareness amongst population (Aldiabat & Le Navenec, 2018). In this context, grounded theory approach would be most suitable approach because it primarily aims to expand upon an explanation of a phenomenon such as impact on general population by identifying key elements that influence the information interpretation and categorizing the relationship of the factors with impact on general population (Aspers & Corte, 2019). More specifically, the grounded theory will support social researchers to gather insight of influence perception because media information interpretation and information received are often gained from their explanation and lived experience. In this case, face to face semi structured interview by including specific including sampling from general population will support researchers to document the lived experience of participants while receiving information and mean they give to the media information (DeJonckheere & Vaughn, 2019). The active role of the researchers in the research support them to gain distinct experience related to the research topic using similar questions. The open-ended question in qualitative research enable them to values, beliefs and perception of distinct participants of the research as observed in this proposed research (Weller et al., 2019).


While codes and concepts enable researchers to extract data by comparing emerging data with same and distinct participating response, themes development indicate representation of the similarity or difference (Braun & Clarke, 2022). In this context of the proposed research, themes will represents distinct impact of media bias on general population such as a sense of pleasure, violence, nudity, political behavior. It will specifically provide insight into the impact of rumors spread on the internet. The themes will support identification of a deeper relationship and connection between experience and attitude of the general population and research question. Hence, it can provide a sound theoretical basis of any research as observed in this case.

Potential Implications of the Research Outcomes

The grounded theory approach would be most suitable research theory regarding media bias that would benefit of distinct stakeholders of the research (Weller et al., 2019). For example, the primary stakeholders of research as general population to gather the idea of regarding differences in information interpretation amongst distinct population, influence on behavior, values and other aspects of study (effects of the different mass media on social, psychological and physical aspects) (Velasquez, Barnidge & Rojas, 2021). It will support researchers to gain idea theoretical foundation of conducting future research regarding strategic insights into issues of the media bias affecting the knowledge and behavior (Hamborg, Donnay & Gipp, 2019). For the general public, it will provide them with an insight of interpreting information carefully and use judgment to eliminate the biases before developing behavior and beliefs based on the information provided. It is particularly crucial for the journalists to alter presentation of the information (Weller et al., 2019). For example, Media Research usually support research and the trends and bring out useful information in the field of mass media and communication. In this case, Media Research usually support research in making decisions regarding presentation of any sensitive topic and improve of representing the information. It will support journalists to be aware of the impact of biased information on general population and alter presenting the information.

It has a significant impact on the policy makers and governing bodies. For example, since media bias of the information influence substantial part of the policy development and political agenda, it will provide policy makers to conduct primary research and surveillance regarding the topic portrayed in the media before developing policy (Weller et al., 2019). Similar practical implication is applicable for governing bodies because this proposed social research will support Government to conduct primary research and surveillance before conducting any initiatives. Hence, this social research is highly effective to gather diverse human experience and influence distinct stakeholders of the research.

Conclusion

On a concluding note, it can be said that media bias has a significant role in influencing beliefs of consumers and altering their behaviors. Grounded theory is a theoretical approach that aims to discover the meanings of social actions, interactions and experience. The grounded theory approach would be most suitable research theory regarding media bias that would benefit of distinct stakeholders of the research. ). It will support researchers to gain idea theoretical foundation of conducting future research regarding strategic insights into issues of the media bias affecting the knowledge and behavior. Hence, this social research is highly effective to gather diverse human experience and influence distinct stakeholders of the research.

References


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Aspers, P., & Corte, U. (2019). What is qualitative in qualitative research. Qualitative sociology, 42(2), 139-160. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11133-019-9413-7

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2022). Conceptual and design thinking for thematic analysis. Qualitative Psychology, 9(1), 3. https://psycnet.apa.org/record/2021-45248-001

Chun Tie, Y., Birks, M., & Francis, K. (2019). Grounded theory research: A design framework for novice researchers. SAGE open medicine, 7, 2050312118822927. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/2050312118822927

DeJonckheere, M., & Vaughn, L. M. (2019). Semistructured interviewing in primary care research: a balance of relationship and rigour. Family medicine and community health, 7(2), e000057. https://doi.org/10.1136/fmch-2018-000057

Hamborg, F., Donnay, K., & Gipp, B. (2019). Automated identification of media bias in news articles: an interdisciplinary literature review. International Journal on Digital Libraries, 20(4), 391-415. http://unipub.lib.uni-corvinus.hu/3587/1/238-1221-1-PB.pdf

Jamali, H. R. (2018). Does research using qualitative methods (grounded theory, ethnography, and phenomenology) have more impact?. Library & Information Science Research, 40(3-4), 201-207.

Mohajan, H. K. (2018). Qualitative research methodology in social sciences and related subjects. Journal of Economic Development, Environment and People, 7(1), 23-48. https://www.ceeol.com/search/article-detail?id=640546


Qureshi, H. A., & Ünlü, Z. (2020). Beyond the paradigm conflicts: A four-step coding instrument for grounded theory. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 19, 1609406920928188.


Spinde, T., Hamborg, F., Donnay, K., Becerra, A., & Gipp, B. (2020, August). Enabling news consumers to view and understand biased news coverage: a study on the perception and visualization of media bias. In Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE joint conference on digital libraries in 2020 (pp. 389-392). https://dl.acm.org/doi/pdf/10.1145/3383583.3398619?

Strömbäck, J., Tsfati, Y., Boomgaarden, H., Damstra, A., Lindgren, E., Vliegenthart, R., & Lindholm, T. (2020). News media trust and its impact on media use: Toward a framework for future research. Annals of the International Communication Association, 44(2), 139-156. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23808985.2020.1755338

Velasquez, A., Barnidge, M., & Rojas, H. (2021). Group consciousness and corrective action: The mediating role of perceived media bias and of proattitudinal selective exposure. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 98(1), 105-125. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/1077699020949249



Weller, S. C., Vickers, B., Bernard, H. R., Blackburn, A. M., Borgatti, S., Gravlee, C. C., & Johnson, J. C. (2018). Open-ended interview questions and saturation. PloS one, 13(6), e0198606. https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0198606

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