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Yirlem: DQ1

Leininger’s Sunrise model helps examine factors that could impact Sanya’s decision from a cultural perspective. One of the elements of the model is economic factors. Sanya is a 20-year-old university student with an unplanned pregnancy. She likely does not have the finances to take her pregnancy to term and take care of her baby. Educational factors also play into this situation because Sanya likely did not have adequate sexual education to protect her from an unplanned pregnancy (Andrews & Boyle, 2016). She is in university and does have some knowledge about her options for pregnancy. However, Sanya only came into the clinic when she was 16 weeks pregnant, indicating she did not know the importance of accessing healthcare once she determined she was pregnant.

Sanya is also misinformed about when one can get an abortion. Social factors and kinship also play into this situation (Betancourt, 2015). One of these is family factors because Sanya does not have the option of marrying her baby’s father since her family disapproves. The fact that she cannot marry her preferred boyfriend might have played a part in her decision to have the abortion. Finally, cultural beliefs and values play a significant role in Sanya’s situation. Sanya’s Indian culture prohibits her from getting an abortion unless her life is in danger. Her parents have arranged a marriage to an Indian man and expect her to move back to India (Andrews & Boyle, 2016). A pregnancy from an American boyfriend would not be acceptable in Sanya’s culture.

The nurse can support Sanya in different ways. An essential way to help her is to understand the impact of Sanya’s cultural beliefs on her decision to abort. By asking questions, the nurse can acquire a strong awareness of the potential challenges Sanya faces that have brought her to this decision. It is also critical not to make assumptions about Sanya or her culture and instead focus on educating her about her options (Kersey-Matusiak, 2019). It would also be helpful to encourage Sanya to bring in her parents so they can also have a better understanding of Sanya’s desires. These approaches will create trust and help all the parties involved make the best choices for themselves. 

Flor: DQ2

1   Quality and safety in nursing go hand in hand. The higher quality of work that the nurses do would result in a safer environment at work, both for the patients as well as for the nurses. In this regard, it can be said that quality in nursing has to do with nurses following evidence-based practices. These are practices that have been proven by research to work and to have the best possible outcomes. This is why nurses who use evidence-based practices are the ones who are likely to provide the best quality of care to the patients with the safest outcomes (Camargo et al., 2018). 

2.         There can be several quality issues in healthcare. These can include a shortage of nurses. When the nurse-to-patient ratio is high, that is, one nurse is taking care of many patients, it can affect the quality of care (Haddad et al., 2022). This is because the nurse would be overwhelmed and not be able to work effectively. Other than that, quality issues in nursing can also be because of a lack of resources and funds. If the nurses are working in an environment where there are not enough resources, it can lead to quality care issues. Finally, lack of communication can also result in lower quality of work in healthcare. 

3.         Some safety issues in nursing include medication errors. Nurses tend to administer medications to the patients and the nurses must ensure that they are providing the right medications to the right patients at the right dosage (Dirik et al., 2019). If this is something that is not done, it can lead to medication errors, which can result in patients getting sicker or injured and even dying. Other than that, safety issues in nursing also include injuries to the nurses, such as not using the appropriate methods for lifting patients or by pinprick injuries. 

Igor: DQ3

    The Change Theory has three major concepts: driving forces, restraining forces, and equilibrium. Driving forces are those that push in a direction that causes change to occur. They facilitate change because they push the patient in a desired direction. They cause a shift in the equilibrium towards change. Restraining forces are those forces that counter the driving forces. They hinder change because they push the patient in the opposite direction. They cause a shift in the equilibrium that opposes change. Equilibrium is a state of being where driving forces equal restraining forces, and no change occurs. It can be raised or lowered by changes that occur between the driving and restraining forces (Lewin, 1951).

     There are three stages in this nursing theory: unfreezing, change, and refreezing. (Hussain, 2018).

         Lewin described the unfreezing process as convincing an organization to discard old ideas or processes. The change process occurs when people begin to support the changes that are being implemented. In the refreezing process, new behavior is reinforced and becomes part of the work routine. Reinforcing the new behavior and making certain that it is applied daily helps to ensure that refreezing occurs.

     Describe how people react to change? People will feel awkward, ill at ease, and self-conscious. Change means doing something different and, as such, people will almost always react with some degree of discomfort. In fact, if you don’t feel awkward when you’re trying something new, you’re probably not really doing anything differently (Nursing Theory, 2022)

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