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Running Head: LR

Literature Review

Melissa Soto

PSY3011

South University

Dr Alyssa Gilston

Summary:

1. The concept of self-efficacy was first introduced in the late 90s by Bandura, who described it as an ability to believe in oneself and his or her ability to successfully finish the tasks required to achieve one’s goals. According to Bandura, self-efficacy has more to do with a person’s confidence in his abilities than his actual abilities. Positive self-efficacy has proven to be effective in positive behavioral outcomes. So far, self-efficacy has been treated more as domain-specific rather than an omnibus. Domain-specific efficacy is associated with a specific matter, such as work or job efficacy. However, generalized self-efficacy is a person’s belief that he or she can do anything in life and succeed at it. But Bandura believes generalized terms of self-efficacy lack depth and explanatory power. Furthermore, data from different government sectors were collected to deeply analyze the hypothesis and study the relations between generalized self-efficacy and learning. The structural equation model supported this hypothesis (Elias et al., 2013).

2. Self-efficacy has more to do with a person’s belief in himself than his actual abilities and potential. The term “perceived self-efficacy” accurately describes this phenomenon. The perception people have about their abilities is basically a coping mechanism, which has different underlying behavioral changes. Three questions are often asked when it comes to the discussion of perceived self-efficacy. First, is, are self-efficacy perceptions generalized in all situations? The answer to this question is that in idiosyncratic sets of situations, perceived self-efficacy is generalized, especially when these situations are associated with schematic personal attributes. The second question is that does perceive self-efficacy is influenced by affective states? Its answer is that, yes, different states do affect self-efficacy in different ways. For instance, the negative mood does not highly influence self-efficacy but leads to the creation of elevation of efficacy standards, either by raising performance standards or similar attributes. The third question following these two is that is there in a given domain, is the level of self-efficacy always singular or multiple? It was discovered by research that different levels of self-efficacy are recognized by distinguishing the self-efficacy on the basis of attainment of goals and executing certain strategies (Cervone, 2000).

Analysis:

1. Social psychology is one of the most widely studied and broad disciplines. It holds a crucial place in the education sector as it studies human behavior and different factors and their influence on it. Similarly, self-efficacy is a relatively new term that differs from self-esteem, and it was studied and coined by Bandura in the late 90s. Self-efficacy deals with a person’s confidence in his or her abilities and how much capable he or she considers themselves to be to achieve a certain task. In this article, the importance of self-efficacy was described and how there are different types of self-efficacies that are not realized in psychological studies. One type is domain-specific self-efficacy, in which an employee feels confident about his job. He reassures himself that whatever task he is assigned, he will complete it successfully. Then there is another type, called generalized self-efficacy, which is the phenomenon when a person generally feels confident about all the things they can potentially come across in life. To him, he can succeed at whatever task he does. 

2. Depending on the circumstances, self-efficacy is categorized into different types. The human psyche is a complex phenomenon and cannot be studied or summarized in simpler terms. On the basis of the domain, perceived self-efficacy depends on two distinct factors; whether the person in question is going to achieve a goal or execute a plan. Humans have a unique trait of studying their environment thoroughly and then moving accordingly. If a person possesses perceived self-efficacy and he has to achieve a goal, he thinks differently and views his abilities on the successful side of the spectrum. The achievement becomes highly possible for him, which then changes his entire outlook on the whole situation. Similarly, if he has to execute a complicated plan, he takes a different move. His brain functions differently, and he calculates his ability in a different light.

 


Reference:

Elias, S. M., Barney, C. E., & Bishop, J. W. (2013). The treatment of self‐efficacy among psychology and management scholars. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43(4), 811-822.

Cervone, D. (2000). Thinking about self-efficacy. Behavior modification, 24(1), 30-56.

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