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Benchmark Quantitative or Qualitative Research Reporting

Case Scenarios and Templates

On page two and three, there are two case scenarios with a detailed summary of the study, purpose, research question, study design, data, method of analysis of the data, and the results. Choose one case scenario to report on.

Answer the following questions, reflecting on the case scenario:

I Choose Qualitative Reporting: Template Questions

· What was the research question?

· What type of study design is used? (i.e. Is the study most aligned with Grounded Theory, Phenomenology, Consensual Qualitative Research, or Participatory Action Research?) Please explain.

· What themes emerged from the interviews and how do the participant quotes inform the theme?

· How do these themes address the research question?

· What are the implications of the results for the study and the counseling field?

I Choose Quantitative Reporting: Template Questions

· What was the research question?

· What type of study design is used (between/within groups, pretest/postest, etc.)? Please explain.

· Is the correct statistical test used to analyze the data? Why or why not?

· Are the results statistically significant? Social science research uses a p value of .05 or less to determine statistical significance.

· Does the researcher reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis?

· What are the implications of the results for the study and the counseling field?


Qualitative Reporting: Case Scenario

Counselors and school counselors are concerned about the current trend in the use of technology and how an excessive use of technology can lead to an increase in mood disorders and addiction. Research indicates this is particularly true for our youth. A complicating factor is that many youth use technology everyday as a source of connection and socializing; therefore, researchers determine it would be helpful to better understand the motivation for youth’s use of technology and how their use influences their behaviors. First, the authors must identify a theoretical framework for their qualitative study.

Social Learning Theory (SLT, Bandura, 1977) posits that people learn and behave only after first observing others around them; the researchers use SLT as a theoretical paradigm to guide their investigation. As seen in SLT, it can be helpful to better understand the motivation in behavior as a way to implement effective change. In this case, exploring the experiences of youth who use technology can help counselors develop adequate and proper interventions to treat those being negatively impacted by an overuse of technology. The purpose of this study is to explore youth motivations for using technology and how their use might impact their daily functioning. The research question is: What are youth’s motivations for using technology and how does it impact their daily functioning?

The researchers designed a study using a convenience sample of 10 participants that responded to an initial screening survey and who indicated they excessively use technology in some manner. After obtaining parental consent, the participants were then interviewed to discuss their use of technology and the impact their use of technology had on their daily function. The transcripts of the interview were coded and then rigorously analyzed by all researchers and core ideas were developed. The research team came to a consensus of the identified themes, patterns, and relationships. The researcher then attempted to link the research findings to the research question.

Some of the themes (and relevant participant quotes) that emerged from the data are:

Theme #1: Youth use technology as their main source of peer connection

· Quotes:

· Billy said: “I play video games with my friends each day when I get the chance.”

· Melissa said: “I’m in school all day long and when I get home I want to be able to talk to my friends.”

· Mark said: “Most nights I stay up late so I can group chat with friends.”

Theme #2: Youth use technology when it is expected of them

· Quotes:

· Ruth said: “Even when I’m with my family I can’t help but look at my phone. There is not a minute that I’m not getting a text or snapchat from my friends.”

· Jeff said: “My friends always want me to text them or be online even when it is a school night.”

· Krista said: “I have over a thousand followers on Instagram so I have to post everyday so they keep following me.”

Quantitative Reporting: Case Scenario

Standard Treatment

Standard Treatment & Mindfulness

14

18

9

12

11

17

10

11

13

17

14

21

8

14

12

14

15

16

7

12

8

12

4

4

3

10

15

9

3

10

9

10

6

9

7

8

10

10

8

7

Counselors and school counselors are concerned that the current treatments being offered for smoking dependence are not resulting in a high enough percentage of successful outcomes for adolescents. A complicating factor is that many adolescents experience depression during treatment for smoking dependence. Mindfulness Therapy has demonstrated efficacy for the treatment of depression. The purpose of the study is to determine the efficacy of adding Mindfulness Therapy to the standard treatment program. The research question is: Will the addition of Mindfulness Therapy
with
standard treatment improve the efficacy of that treatment when used for adolescents with smoking dependence?

The researchers designed a study using a convenience sample of 40 participants who have entered treatment for smoking dependence. The participants were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups, the standard treatment program or the standard treatment program
with
Mindfulness Therapy. Participants will receive treatment for 16 weeks and then complete a Youth Specific version of the Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale (NDSS). The treatment groups are considered equivalent at the beginning of the study based on random assignment to groups. The null hypothesis states there will be no difference in scores on the NDSS between those who receive the standard treatment program and those who receive the standard treatment program with Mindfulness Therapy. The researcher used an independent samples t-test to analyze the data.

The scores on the Youth-Specific NDSS for the two groups are:


Independent Samples T-Test Results

The results are t(38) = 4.9607, p = .000.

Standard Treatment Means = 13.25 (Standard Deviation = 3.51)

Standard Treatment AND Mindfulness Means= 8.1 (Standard Deviation = 3.04)

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