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Running head: REFERENCES 1



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Amini Pozveh, Z., & Saleh, Z. (2020). The role of social skills in the prevention of drug addiction in adolescents. Advanced Biomedical Research, 9(1), 41.

The aim of this research was to investigate whether or not there is a correlation between certain elements of adolescents’ social skills and their propensity to become addicted to substances. A study using a cross-sectional design was carried out on a group of 600 high school teenagers attending classes in Isfahan City, Iran. A survey designed to measure addictive tendencies was administered to the sample population. According to the findings, factors such as social conduct, high self-esteem, and interaction with peers were inversely correlated with a drug abuse propensity and served as independent factors of that propensity. The information that this study gathered on the role of social skills elements with association to addictions will be relevant to the introduction chapter of my thesis.

Alebachew, W., Semahegn, A., Ali, T., & Mekonnen, H. (2019). Prevalence, associated factors and consequences of substance use among health and medical science students of Haramaya University, eastern Ethiopia, 2018: a cross-sectional study. BMC Psychiatry, 19(1).

This research aimed to assess the incidences of drug abuse amongst medical students at Haramaya University, as well as the characteristics that are linked with this behavior. 254 students selected using random sampling participated in the qualitative descriptive investigation.  Results indicated a high prevalence of past drug consumption among the learners with 63% being the male students. This analysis will provide information on the prevalence of alcoholism and related variables on adolescents, which will be very useful for the development of my thesis.

Barnow, S., Schuckit, M., Lucht, M., John, U., & Freyberger, H. (2012). The importance of a positive family history of alcoholism, parental rejection and emotional warmth, behavioral problems and peer substance use for alcohol problems in teenagers: a path analysis. Journal Of Studies On Alcohol, 63(3), 305-315.

This research aimed to investigate a hypothetical model of alcohol-related difficulties among German teenagers. 133 families with adolescents were chosen at random for the study. The research employed semi-structured diagnostic interviews and many personality surveys. Results indicated that the AP group displayed increased behavioral issues, perceived parental denial, and were more likely to be associated with drug addicts. This study will provide insights into alcohol related issues. This information will be relevant for the literature review section of my thesis.

Degenhardt, L., Charlson, F., Ferrari, A., Santomauro, D., Erskine, H., & Mantilla-Herrara, A. et al. (2018). The global burden of disease attributable to alcohol and drug use in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016. The Lancet Psychiatry, 5(12), 987-1012.

The authors of this study aimed to project the worldwide illness burden owing to alcohol and drug consumption. Bayesian meta-regression was utilized to assess population-level drug use problem rates. Results indicated Worldwide, 100•4 million alcohol consumption problems in 2016. This study is pertinent to the topic of my thesis since it will provide information on the incidences of alcohol or drug addiction and the worldwide disease burden linked to these behaviors.

Guerri, C., & Pascual, M. (2018). Impact of neuroimmune activation induced by alcohol or drug abuse on adolescent brain development. International Journal Of Developmental Neuroscience, 77(1), 89-98.

The aim of this research is to evaluate the impacts of alcohol and other drugs on teenage brain functions and conduct. A four weeks intensive comprehensive lifestyle treatment was applied in a secondary analysis. Results indicated that drug misuse in adolescents can have long-term repercussions, and anti-inflammatory targets should be employed to alleviate them. This research will provide crucial insights for the literature review section of my thesis on the impacts of alcohol and drug addiction on the nervous system of adolescents.

Hallit, J., Salameh, P., Haddad, C., Sacre, H., Soufia, M., & Akel, M. et al. (2020). Validation of the AUDIT scale and factors associated with alcohol use disorder in adolescents: results of a National Lebanese Study. BMC Pediatrics, 20(1).

The focus of this research is to assess the incidence of alcohol use disorder (AUD) and related elements amongst a sample group of Lebanese teenagers, as well as to assess and verify the Alcohol Usage Disorders Identification Test’s (AUDIT) psychometric qualities. A cross-sectional survey was done, with about 1800 teenagers. Results indicated that Alcohol use disorder amongst Lebanese teenagers is linked to a number of characteristics, including smoking addiction, parental separation, increased internet addictions, and bullying victimization. This study’s findings on the prevalence of alcohol use disorders amongst individuals will be useful in the introduction section of my thesis.

Hearld, K., Budhwani, H., & Chavez-Yenter, D. (2015). Panic attacks in minority Americans: The effects of alcohol abuse, tobacco smoking, and discrimination. Journal Of Affective Disorders, 174, 106-112.

This research aimed to assess the possible links between experiencing panic attacks, belonging to a minority group, and one’s country of origin, with a particular emphasis on the roles played by prejudice and unhealthy lifestyle choices. Logistic regression was used in order to assess the chance of satisfying the requirements for panic attacks. A sample of 17,249 individuals was surveyed for this study. Results indicated substantial connections between demographic and socioeconomic characteristics; the likelihood of females matching the criterion for panic attacks was approximately 2.4 times greater than the likelihood of men meeting those criteria. People who have a history of alcohol misuse are more than twice as likely to suffer from panic attacks. Similarly, the likelihood of having a panic episode was increased by 52% among smokers compared to non-smokers. The findings of this research will provide insights on the consequences of alcoholism and drug usage, therefore offering crucial information for the subject of my thesis. This study will provide insights into the effects of alcoholism and drug addiction which will be significant for my thesis’s topic

Heradstveit, O., Skogen, J., Hetland, J., & Hysing, M. (2017). Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use Are Important Factors for School-Related Problems among Adolescents. Frontiers In Psychology, 8.

The authors of this research, Heradstveit et al (2017), aimed to determine the link between substance abuse and academic issues like low grade point averages (GPAs) and dropping out of middle school. Psychological problems were also examined as a possible complicating factor. a cross-sectional design was used to analyze data from 7,874 participants. The study results indicated that alcohol and drug-related addictions have substantial roles in the increase of education related troubles. This research will aid in providing information regarding alcohol and drug abuse’s impact on education-related issues. This data will be crucial in constructing the literature review for my thesis topic.

Hovhannisyan, K., Rasmussen, M., Adami, J., Wikström, M., & Tønnesen, H. (2020). Evaluation of Very Integrated Program: Health Promotion for Patients with Alcohol and Drug Addiction—A Randomized Trial. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 44(7), 1456-1467.

The authors, Hovhannisyan et al. (2020), aimed to test the effectiveness of the Very Integrated Program (VIP) on care and wellness impacts for addicts. Parallel randomized clinical trial with addictions treatments was employed. 220 participants with eighteen years and above participated in the study. Results indicated no substantial difference in primary or secondary outcomes between groups after 6 weeks. This study is significant for my thesis because it will provide information on the impacts addiction on adolescents’ health.

Jongenelis, M., Pettigrew, S., Lawrence, D., & Rikkers, W. (2019). Factors Associated with Poly Drug Use in Adolescents. Prevention Science, 20(5), 695-704.

This study aimed to explore the psychological, environmental, and demographic elements that are most significantly linked to the consumption of tobacco, cannabis and alcohol. Alcohol, cannabis and cigarette usage among adolescents between the ages of fifteen and seventeen (n = 1660; 51 percent male) was surveyed.  A weighted multivariable regression was utilized to examine the possible causes of alcohol and smoking in the population. Results showed that twenty percent of participants had consumed at least one drug, seven percent had used two, and three percent had used all three. Alcohol and tobacco were the most prevalent combinations of drugs abused. The information from this study on the factors associated with alcohol and drug abuse in adolescents will be useful for the introduction section of my thesis.

Karlsson, H., Persson, E., Perini, I., Yngve, A., Heilig, M., & Tinghög, G. (2021). Acute effects of alcohol on social and personal decision making. Neuropsychopharmacology, 47(4), 824-831.

 The purpose of this research was to conduct an in-depth analysis of the acute impacts that drinking alcohol has on several aspects of judgment in both the private and the public spheres. This analysis utilized a sample size of 260 randomized controlled trials. According to the findings, a dosage of alcohol equal to 0.6 g/kg had a significant impact on both value judgment and humanitarian conduct. This study will provide important insights into the effects of alcohol addiction for my thesis topic.

Mehra, V., Keethakumar, A., Bohr, Y., Abdullah, P., & Tamim, H. (2019). The association between alcohol, marijuana, illegal drug use and current use of E-cigarette among youth and young adults in Canada: results from Canadian Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey 2017. BMC Public Health, 19(1).

The authors, Mehra et al. (2019), aimed to assess e-cigarette usage amongst children and adolescents in Canada and the relationship of alcohol, and illegal drug usage. Multivariable logistics regression was used to investigate the relationship between the major outcomes and drug abuse, smoking exposures, demographics, and wellness covariates. Results indicated that Six percent of 15–24-year-old Canadians used e-cigarettes within the past one month, and twenty four percent had tried them. This research is pertinent to the introduction section of my thesis since it will help provide more insights on the connection between alcohol, and drug usage in adolescents.

Meza, R., Jimenez-Mendoza, E., & Levy, D. (2020). Trends in Tobacco Use Among Adolescents by Grade, Sex, and Race, 1991-2019. JAMA Network Open, 3(12), e2027465.

The goal of this research was to assess the long-term and current patterns in tobacco smoking consumption amongst United States adolescents. Study participants were divided into three groups based on demographic characteristics such as grade (eighth, tenth, and twelfth), gender, and race. Learners in the United States who took part in the Monitoring the Future survey between, 1991 and 2019 were examined for this study. The findings revealed that despite a rise in e-cigarette usage among teenagers between 2011 and 2019, the incidence of smoking declined more quickly throughout the same time compared to preceding years. This study will provide crucial information on the prevalence of tobacco smoking among adolescents for the background section of my thesis.

Miller, S., Maggs, J., Eiden, R., & Almeida, D. (2022). Familial Predictors of Alcohol and Drug Use-Related Problems Among Middle-Aged and Older Adults. Journal Of Family Issues, 0192513X2110648.×211064877

The aim of this research was to investigate whether current alcohol and drug addiction issues amongst family members and the density of drug addiction issues within families are predictive of alcohol-related issues and narcotic abuse issues amongst middle aged individuals. Data were collected from a total of 2168 people, and Poisson regression techniques were utilized to analyze the collected information. The findings showed that issues associated with alcohol substance abuse use in middle aged individuals might be anticipated by the presence of common challenges among family members. The findings of this study will provide information on alcohol and substance addiction disorders, which will be essential for the topic of my thesis

Nakhoul, L., Obeid, S., Sacre, H., Haddad, C., Soufia, M., & Hallit, R. et al. (2020). Attachment style and addictions (alcohol, cigarette, waterpipe and internet) among Lebanese adolescents: a national study. BMC Psychology, 8(1).

The research’s goal was to determine if there was any correlation between the general populace’s attachment types and addictions in Lebanon. A cross-sectional investigation was utilized in this research. A total of 2,000 surveys were distributed, and 90percent of them were returned. Results indicated that insecure attachment patterns were connected with increased smoking and alcohol addictions, while secure attachment types correlated with reduced smoking and drug addictions. This study’s findings on the association between attachment types and addictions will be relevant in the introduction section of my thesis.

Ohannessian, C., Finan, L., Schulz, J., & Hesselbrock, V. (2015). A Long-Term Longitudinal Examination of the Effect of Early Onset of Alcohol and Drug Use on Later Alcohol Abuse. Substance Abuse, 36(4), 440-444.

The authors of this research, Ohannessian et al, (2015), aimed to investigate whether adolescent smoking or use of alcohol can predict future issues with alcohol. Three rounds of interviews with 225 teenagers (60% girls) between fifteen and nineteen years were conducted to find out the age at which they started alcohol and drug consumption. According to the findings, adolescents who started consuming alcohol at a young age had higher Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test scores and consumed alcohol more often to achieve euphoria and inebriation in their teenage years. Using this study’s findings will help me to better understand adolescents’ alcohol abuse issues, which is crucial to my thesis topic.

Pettigrew, S., Jongenelis, M., Lawrence, D., & Rikkers, W. (2017). Common and differential factors associated with abstinence and poly drug use among Australian adolescents. International Journal Of Drug Policy, 50, 41-47.

This study aimed to find out what variables influence adolescents adherence to guidelines calling for no alcohol, cigarette, or cannabis use, as well as what factors influence people’s usage of a variety of other drugs. More than 1660 Australian teenagers between the ages of fifteen and seventeen were asked to fill out a self-report questionnaire. Assessments of probit regression were used to create two models: one for abstinence and one for usage. While there were significant variations between the two models, demonstrating that distinct variables may impact the commencement of drug use vs poly drug usage, there were also some similar characteristics that worked in the reverse way. Children’s ages, level of parental involvement, past exposure to externalizing issues including behavioral difficulties, and a depression diagnosis were all taken into consideration while creating this list. This study will provide important insights for the introduction section of my thesis.

Pilatti, A., Caneto, F., Garimaldi, J., Vera, B., & Pautassi, R. (2013). Contribution of Time of Drinking Onset and Family History of Alcohol Problems in Alcohol and Drug Use Behaviors in Argentinean College Students. Alcohol And Alcoholism, 49(2), 128-137.

The authors of this research, Pilatti et al (2013) aimed to assess if there were any independent or interdependent effects of early drinking age and a family background of alcoholism on eventual patterns of alcohol consumption, alcohol-related issues, and drug addiction. A group of college students, participated in the study. Alcohol-related difficulties were assessed through the use of a questionnaire. Participants with early or late consumption commencement, as well as those with or without a family background of drug addiction were subjected to factor assessments of variance in order to examine variations in drug addiction behaviors and alcohol-related issues. According to the findings, early onset drinking was linked to higher rates of alcohol intake, including those that could be considered harmful, as well as cigarette and drug usage. This research will provide important insights into effects of early alcohol addiction which will be relevant for my thesis topic

Rafiee, G., Ahmadi, J., & Rafiee, F. (2019). Prevalence of Substance Abuse (Tobacco, Alcohol, Narcotics and Psychotropic Drugs) and Its Relationship to Family Factors in Pre-university Male Students in Shiraz 2017–2018. Journal Of Community Health, 45(1), 176-182.

The aim of this research was to investigate the extent to which pre-university learners engage in substance abuse and to examine the ways in which this behavior is related to aspects of their families. One thousand male high school learners in fourth grade were chosen at random over the course of six months and across four regions in Shiraz City during the 2017–2018 academic year. Fourteen percent of the individuals were regular smokers, thirteen percent had a record of alcohol intake, and one percent used psychotropic medicines.   According to the findings, there was a correlation between alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking, with 59 percent of the subjects who drank alcohol also being smokers. Five percent of them admitted to using all three products, which included alcohol, cigarettes, and psychoactive drugs. This information from this article on drug addiction prevalence will be crucial for the literature review part of my thesis topic.

Rivara, F. (2013). The Effects of Alcohol Abuse on Readmission for Trauma. JAMA: The Journal Of The American Medical Association, 270(16), 1962.

The goal of this research was to find out if admissions for trauma and acute or chronic alcohol misuse increased the chance of recurrence. Study participants aged eighteen years and above who were admitted to the hospital with traumatic injury within one day after injury and survived to discharge were included in a prospective cohort analysis. Results indicated an overall readmissions incidence of 1.3 per one thousand patients showing that alcohol consumption was linked to an elevated risk of readmissions for fresh trauma. This study is important for my thesis because it sheds light on the connection between trauma treatment admissions and substance abuse problems including alcoholism and drug dependency.

Sebsibie, G. (2018). Assessment of Drug Addiction and Its Associated Factor among Youths in Nazareth Town, Eastern Shoa, Ethiopia. Journal Of Addiction Research &Amp; Therapy, 09(01).

This research aimed to determine the incidence of drug addiction and the factors that are linked with it among young people living in Nazareth Town, Ethiopia. This research was carried out using a cross sectional study with a sample of 400 adolescents recruited using random sampling method.   According to the findings, seventy percent of the people who took part in the study were addicted to one or more drugs. The rate of drug addictions was much higher among men (77%) than it was among females. This article contains significant details about drug addictions, which is relevant for my thesis’ literature review section.

Retrieved from: Shimelis Keno Tulu, and Wosen Keskis, (2015). “Assessment of Causes, Prevalence and Consequences of Alcohol and Drug Abuse among Mekelle University, CSSL 2nd Year Students.” American Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 3, no. 3 (2015): 47-56. doi: 10.12691/ajap-3-3-1.

This study was aimed looking into the primary contributors, incidence, and repercussions of alcohol and drug addiction among second year undergraduates at Mekelle University.  329 participants were randomly recruited and given a standardized screening exam to identify alcohol and drug addicts. Survey forms were given to each individual to evaluate the incidence of drug addiction. Results indicated that behavioral, scholastic, physiological, financial, health, mental, and social repercussions of alcohol and drug usage were the effects of alcohol and drug addiction. This research will provide important insights into the effects of alcohol and drug addiction, which will be applicable to my entire thesis topic.

Skogen, J., Sivertsen, B., Lundervold, A., Stormark, K., Jakobsen, R., & Hysing, M. (2014). Alcohol and drug use among adolescents: and the co-occurrence of mental health problems. [email protected], a population-based study. BMJ Open, 4(9), e005357-e005357.

The authors of this research aimed to evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between the first use of alcohol or drug abuse and difficulties associated with alcohol and drug usage as well as psychological wellbeing. Population-based samples of Norwegian teenagers was employed in a research with a cross-sectional design to gather the necessary information. Results revealed that the beginning of alcohol and drug use was connected with experiences of sadness, and restlessness. This study will provide material that is pertinent to the literature review section of my thesis.

Van Boekel, L., Brouwers, E., van Weeghel, J., & Garretsen, H. (2013). Public opinion on imposing restrictions to people with an alcohol- or drug addiction: a cross-sectional survey. Social Psychiatry And Psychiatric Epidemiology, 48(12), 2007-2016.

The aim of this study is to shed light on the origins of individual’s negative opinions on alcohol and drug addicts. A cross-sectional assessment of a sample group of the 2793 individuals was used for the study. Path analyses were undertaken to examine the impact of attribution views, emotions and feelings, and acquaintance with addictions on individual’s intentions to limit the addicts. Results indicated that above 50% individuals believe that a person with a substance abuse problem should be prohibited from holding public office or caring for children. This research is relevant to the topic of my thesis because it will explain why drug and substance misuse addicts suffer negative sentiments from the general populace.

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