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Literature Evaluation Table

Student Name:

Change Topic (2-3 sentences): The aim of the evaluation is to determine the best method for reducing Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) in the older patients. Strategies being compared are educational programs and electronic medication.

Criteria

Article 1

Article 2

Article 3

Article 4

Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), and

Permalink or Working Link to Access Article

Wang, H., Meng, L., Song, J., Yang, J., Li, J., & Qiu, F. (2018). Electronic medication reconciliation in hospitals: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 25(5), 245–250. https://doi.org/10.1136/ejhpharm-2017-001441

Kinlay, M., Ho, L. M., Zheng, W. Y., Burke, R., Juraskova, I., Moles, R., & Baysari, M. (2021). Electronic Medication Management Systems: Analysis of enhancements to reduce errors and improve workflow. Applied Clinical Informatics, 12(05), 1049–1060. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0041-1739196

Fuller, A. E. C., Guirguis, L. M., Sadowski, C. A., & Makowsky, M. J. (2018). Electronic Medication Administration records in long‐term Care Facilities: A scoping review. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 66(7), 1428–1436. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15384

Bugnon, B., Geissbuhler, A., Bischoff, T., Bonnabry, P., & von Plessen, C. (2021). Improving primary care medication processes by using shared electronic medication plans in Switzerland: Lessons learned from a participatory action research study. JMIR Formative Research, 5(1). https://doi.org/10.2196/22319

Article Title and Year Published

Title- Electronic medication reconciliation in hospitals: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Year: 2018

Title: Electronic Medication Management Systems: Analysis of enhancements to reduce errors and improve workflow

Year: 2021

Title: Electronic Medication Administration records in long‐term Care Facilities: A scoping review

Year: 2018

Title: Improving primary care medication processes by using shared electronic medication plans in Switzerland: Lessons learned from a participatory action research study

Year: 2021

Research Questions (Qualitative)/Hypothesis (Quantitative)

Hypothesis: Medication reconciliation is a multi-professional process for the prevention of medication discrepancies.

No research questions/hypothesis

Null

Null

Purposes/Aim of Study

To evaluate the available electronic medication reconciliation (eMedRec) tools and their effect on unintended discrepancies that occur in hospital institutions

1. Identify system-related medication errors or workflow blocks that were the target of eMM system updates

2. Describe and classify the system enhancements made to target these risks

To map the extent, range, and nature of research on the effectiveness, level of use, and perceptions about electronic medication administration records (eMARs) in long-term care facilities (LTCFs)

Summarize lessons learned from primary care professionals involved in a pioneering pilot project in Switzerland for the system wide implementation of shared electronic medication plans. 

Design (Type of Quantitative, or Type of Qualitative)

Meta-analysis

Retrospective study

Scoping review of quantitative and qualitative literature.

Formative action research study.

Setting/Sample

Meta-analysis, 13 articles included

Systematic analysis

Literature review

Longitudinal study

Methods: Intervention/Instruments

Methodological quality was assessed using the nine standard criteria of Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Review Group (EPOC)

147 individual changes, were made to the eMM system over the 4-year period

Systematically searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, ProQuest, and the Cochrane Library.

Group interviews

Analysis

Relative risk and significance difference

Descriptive analysis (use of percentages)

Level of significance analysis

Descriptive analysis

Key Findings

Electronic Medical Reconciliation reduces the incidence of medication with unintended discrepancies and improves medication safety.

Electronic Medication Management (eMM) reduces medication errors and optimize workflows

Evidence linking electronic Medication Administration Records (eMAR) in reducing errors is weak.

Participants considered medication plan management, digitalized or not, a core element of good clinical practice

Recommendations

Hospitals adopt electronic medication to reduce ADEs

Hospital organizations can adopt eMM to enhance patient safety and operational efficiency

More research need to be conducted to determine the effectiveness of electronic medication in reducing ADEs

Digitalization is a key element of transforming hospital records

Explanation of How the Article Supports EBP/Capstone Project

It identifies the best approach that can reduce ADES between educational programs and electronic medication.

Shows that electronic Medication Management is the best bet for reducing ADEs

The article informs the need for conducting more robust research on the efficacy of electronic medication in reducing ADEs.

More research should be done to assess the efficacy of electronic records.

Criteria

Article 5

Article 6

Article 7

Article 8

Author, Journal (Peer-Reviewed), and

Permalink or Working Link to Access Article

Gregory, L. R., Lim, R., MacCullagh, L., Riley, T., Tuqiri, K., Heiler, J., & Peters, K. (2021). Intensive Care Nurses’ experiences with the new electronic medication administration record. Nursing Open, 9(3), 1895–1901. https://doi.org/10.1002/nop2.939

Li, R., Zaidi, S. T., Chen, T., & Castelino, R. (2019). Effectiveness of interventions to improve adverse drug reaction reporting by healthcare professionals over the last decade: A systematic review. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 29(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.4906

Lau, G., Ho, J., Lin, S., Yeoh, K., Wan, T., & Hodgkinson, M. (2018). Patient and clinician perspectives of an integrated electronic medication prescribing and dispensing system: A qualitative study at a multisite Australian Hospital Network. Health Information Management Journal, 48(1), 12–23. https://doi.org/10.1177/1833358317720601

Martin, P., Tamblyn, R., Benedetti, A., Ahmed, S., & Tannenbaum, C. (2018). Effect of a pharmacist-led educational intervention on inappropriate medication prescriptions in older adults. JAMA, 320(18), 1889. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2018.16131

Article Title and Year Published

Title: Intensive Care Nurses’ experiences with the new electronic medication administration record

Year: 2021

Title: Effectiveness of interventions to improve adverse drug reaction reporting by healthcare professionals over the last decade: A systematic review

Year: 2019

Title: Patient and clinician perspectives of an integrated electronic medication prescribing and dispensing system: A qualitative study at a multisite Australian Hospital Network

Year: 2018

Research Questions (Qualitative)/Hypothesis (Quantitative)

What are intensive care nurses’ experiences with the new electronic medication administration record?

No research question and hypothesis

Null

Can a consumer-targeted, pharmacist-led educational intervention reduce prescriptions for inappropriate medication among community-dwelling older adults?

Purposes/Aim of Study

To explore the experiences of Registered Nurses who administered medications to patients using the electronic medication administration record.

To assess the impact of various strategies to improve ADR reporting published in the last decade and compare this with the strategies identified in a previous systematic review

To explore and compare patient and clinician attitudes towards an integrated e-prescribing and dispensing system

o compare the effectiveness of a consumer-targeted, pharmacist-led educational intervention vs usual care on discontinuation of inappropriate medication among community-dwelling older adults.

Design (Type of Quantitative, or Type of Qualitative)

Qualitative descriptive exploratory approach

Systematic review

A cross-sectional survey 

A cluster randomized clinical trial

Setting/Sample

Five participants

10,021 articles selected, 13 articles included

Australian metropolitan teaching hospital

Quebec, Canada

Methods: Intervention/Instruments

Focus group, observation

MEDLINE and EMBASE databases 

Survey

andomization occurred at the pharmacy level, with 34 pharmacies randomized to the intervention group (248 patients) and 35 to the control group (241 patients)

Analysis

Thematic analysis

Descriptive analysis

Descriptive analysis- percentages

Descriptive and inferential statistics

Key Findings

eMAR reduced time nurse spent with patients

Electronic method was found to be a better approach when reporting adverse drug reactions compared to educational method

The majority of patients and clinicians reported a positive impact of e-prescribing on safety and efficiency

A pharmacist-led educational intervention compared with usual care resulted in greater discontinuation of prescriptions for inappropriate medication after 6 months

Recommendations

More research needed on the effects of using eMAR to patients and healthcare providers.

More research needed to find the robustness of each method

Hospitals should implement e-prescribing

More research needed to establish the effectiveness of educational programs in reducing ADEs

Explanation of How the Article Supports EBP/Capstone

Electronic medication has the potential to increase patient safety

The article directly compares the effectiveness of educational programs and electronic records which are included in the PICOT question.

The study adds to the evidence that electronic medication is the best approach to reduce ADEs

The study contributes to the topic because educational program for nurses was found to be effective in dealing with ADEs.

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