By the end of this week you will be able to:
– Define philanthropy in the context of cultural and creative industries
– Summarize perspectives on motivations for philanthropy in cultural and creative industries
– Analyze philanthropy and its risks in contemporary and historical contexts
Definitions of philanthropy
Motivations for philanthropy
Histories of philanthropy
Case study: Henry Tate and the Tate Galleries
Thinking forward – contemporary philanthropy
Part one: definitions
Philanthropy is defined as â€œprivate giving of time and resources for public purposesâ€ (Barman 2017, p.272).
So letâ€™s unpack this:
Private â€“ different from mandatory giving in the public sector (eg through taxation).
Differs from market activity (eg buying and selling) – there is no contractual exchange.
Public – not giving to specific individuals, such as family.
Philanthropy differs from charity as it does not have to be orientated towards the poor or â€˜needyâ€™ in society.
Philanthropy can encompass donations from individuals, corporations and foundations.
Why do people give? (Barman, 2017)
Scholars from different academic backgrounds have created theories for why people engage in philanthropy:
Altruism â€“ consideration for othersâ€™ needs.
Emotional/ prestige based, a â€˜warm glowâ€™ or recognition from peers.
Reciprocity â€“ the gift as a social act, to form social relationships within a collective (namely, society).
Why the wealthy give
Philanthropy does not always mean monetary donations â€“ it can also encompass volunteer time.
Many elites donate their time to volunteer positions on trustee boards â€“ this can span from upper class individuals to financial elites.
Elites continue to be central to founding, sustaining and overseeing arts institutions in many cities.
Arts organisations are actually run by professional managers (who are employed) however the board of trustees sets real parameters about how CCIs can be run.
There is a culture around elite philanthropy that helps these individuals to develop and maintain their own class status.
Benefits of philanthropic giving (beth breeze)
With major gifts from individual donors, there is often flexibility in what the CCI can use the money for.
On the other hand, government and corporate sponsorship are very specific about what money must be used for.
Philanthropy can often be used for core activities such as rent, utilities and salaries.
If you were going to make a philanthropic gift â€“ what cultural and creative organization would you donate to, what would you give and why?
What factors are important for you in your decision?
Talk to your partner (5 minutes)
Upload your answers to Google Docs using this link bit.ly/3KGWCpl
Part two: histories of art philanthropy
Before industrialization (prior to the 19th century)
Art collection was the prevue of royalty, nobility and the clergy.
These nobles bought mainly pictures with historic or religious subjects.
The paintings they purchased were of â€˜grand dimensionsâ€™ (they were huge!).
They commissioned many works of art (often of themselves, their families).
They would fit only palaces, churches or Government buildings.
The 19th century
This was a time of huge industrial growth in the UK.
A number of â€˜newâ€™ wealthy entrepreneurs started earning money from coal, steel, cotton and other investments â€“ the bourgeoise.
These new factory owning classes had already bought fancy clothes and houses.
They were now anxious to spend money on other valuable items, and quickly.
For these reasons, many became art collectors.
The new (19th century) art collectors
These new art collectors were motivated by self interest.
They were new members of the bourgeoise and felt insecure in their class position.
They felt looked down on by aristocracy.
They had economic power, but did not have cultural power.
They used their new art collections to show they had good taste, that they belonged in high society.
They used their collections to create a distinctive identity.
Collection as conspicuous consumption
Conspicuous consumption â€“ buying luxuries to establish prestige and signpost to onesâ€™ social class.
A symbol of prosperity, and an instrument to pursue status.
There is also a social element to conspicuous consumption â€“ circles of art lovers and art collectors existed together in high society.
The new art collectors changed art
They didnâ€™t want big pictures â€“ more â€˜domesticâ€™ sizes and subjects.
They didnâ€™t want battles or historical heroes, rather they wanted to see themselves and their own lives.
This sparked changes in how art was marketed â€“ away from private salons, to public exhibitions.
This time also gave birth to the art critic â€“ who made sense of new art movements and promoted certain works.
These new bourgeoise art collectors supported some of the most famous modern European artists
(Gertrude and Leo Stein)
The role of philanthropy
These art collectors were patrons – people who deliberately sponsor the creation, production, preservation and dissemination of art.
Patrons treat artists as â€˜investmentsâ€™ â€“ they funded less well known artists in the hope that they would break through later.
The focus on the â€˜supply sideâ€™ – the â€˜start up costsâ€™
This is Gertrude Stein, an American writer who supported Picasso and other artists during her time in Paris in the early 1900â€™s (the painting of her is by Picasso)
Stein was the daughter of a wealthy businessman and a novelist, poet and playwrite.
Stein held weekly salons in her Paris apartment populated by European and American artists and writers.
Steinâ€™s early patronage and friendship was critical to Picassoâ€™s success. He painted this portrait of her between 1905 and 1906 at the end of his so-called “Rose Period.”
Points for reflection
Philanthropy relies on wealth inequalities- the ongoing inequality between rich and poor.
Trends in society shape cultures of philanthropy.
In turn, cultures of philanthropy shape many forms of culture.
Should the richest people in society be responsible for funding the arts and shaping cultural production?
5 mins Break
Part three: henry tate and the tate galleries
Art philanthropy: the tate
Henry Tate was born in 1819, and made his fortune as a sugar refiner.
In 1888 he wanted to bequeath 65 notable paintings to The National Gallery including John Everett Millaisâ€™ Ophelia.
They did not have room for these paintings so the donation was turned down by trustees.
Tate then spearheaded a campaign to create a new gallery dedicated to British art, and donated Â£80,000 himself.
The Tate Britain opened in 1897 in Milbank, London.
Henry Tateâ€™s original bequest of works and works from the National Gallery formed the founding collection.
The collections have been extended through other forms of philanthropy, for example from Sir Joseph Joel Duveen (who made his fortune selling porcelain) and his son Lord Joseph Duveen.
In recent times, many stakeholders in cultural sectors have been grappling with some of the histories of the philanthropists that founded CCIs.
For example, Henry Tate acquired his fortune as a sugar refiner â€“ as he co-founded the company â€˜Tate and Lyleâ€™.
The Tate Galleries have worked with Centre for the Study of the Legacies of British Slave-ownership at University College London to reflect on the relationship between Henry Tate and slavery.
Henry Tate was 14 when the Act for abolition of slavery in 1933. It is important to note that he personally did not own slaves.
Tate and the slave trade
The sugar industry was constructed on a foundation of slavery. Henry Tateâ€™s business was directly historically connected to slave grown sugar.
Many of Tateâ€™s collections include items given or associated with slave owners or people whose wealth came from slavery.
In a 2019 written statement, the Tate Galleries have said:
â€œWhile it is important to emphasize that Henry Tate was not a slave-owner or slave-trader, it is therefore not possible to separate the Tate galleries from the history of colonial slavery from which in part they derive their existenceâ€
Many cultural and creative industries have invested in events and exhibitions that grapple with these uncomfortable legacies
One example is the 2015 exhibition Artist and Empire â€“ Facing Britainâ€™s Imperial Past
Artist & empire
Points for reflection
Arts organizations are grappling with the troubled histories of the philanthropists who have historically contributed to them.
CCIs have addressed these legacies in numerous ways, including through events, exhibitions, and in some instances, renaming.
However, these events and exhibitions are lucrative endeavors for these CCIS, and they are often critiqued for lacking deep critical engagement with topics such as colonialism or empire.
For example, Catherine Hahn discussed the lack of more brutal or distressing imagery in the Tateâ€™s Artist and Empire exhibition stating:
â€œThe exhibitionâ€™s failure to give vision to empire, in terms of trauma and loss, left a vacuum at the heart of its study, it being impossible to tell a tale of empire that seeks to face the past without laying bare its negative impactâ€ (2017, p.20).
Part four: membership and philanthropy
Membership to arts organizations arose in the 1960s, in part due to the growth of the arts.
Arts membership could be seen as a product, bought for a fee.
For example, many membership schemes offer free entry to CCIs, priority booking, and discounts in shops and cafes.
However, members offer a key source of funding for CCIs, and also stimulates involvement through volunteering.
Founded in 1957
Now over 100,000 members.
Tate Members pay an annual subscription fee and can visit exhibitions as many times as they wish.
tate membership and involvement
Aliz Slater and Kate Armstrong (2010) interviewed 59 Tate Britain and Tate Modern members to find out why they were members using the involvement construct.
Examining membership through the marketing concept of â€˜involvementâ€™
Rothschild (1984) defines involvement as â€œan unobservable state of motivation, arousal or interest, evoked by a particular stimulus or situation and has drive propertiesâ€.
Involvement centers around motivation.
It is about values, self-concept and aims.
In its basic elements, involvement can vary from â€˜high to lowâ€™.
Involvement can be stimulated by promotions and advertising, in addition to other forms of marketing.
Three variables of involvement (Houston and Rothschild, 1978)
Personal: the inherent interests, values or needs that motivate one towards the object.
Physical: the characteristics of the object that cause differentiation and increase interest.
Situational: something that temporarily increases relevance or interest toward the object.
They found that membership is motivated by:
Centrality and pleasure: have histories of visiting the Tate, they see art as a hobby or interest.
Desire to learn: they want to learn more about art, they see the Tate as accessible and often feel themselves to be â€˜art novicesâ€™
Escapism: come to relax, some compared this to Church as a spiritual place for them.
A sense of belonging and prestige: feel part of a community, a club, and can open up spaces for connecting, makes them feel cultured and knowledgeable.
Physical: the architecture and atmosphere
Points to consider
Many Tate members belong to the Tate because of a â€˜sense of belongingâ€™ and prestige.
Tate members feel they are part of an â€˜exclusive club’
These are similar motivations that we discussed earlier, in relation to the 19th century art collectors.
The Tate produces a range of distinctive membership cards â€“ can these be viewed as a form of conspicuous consumption?
Eight mechanisms that drive charitable giving (breeze)
|Mechanisims||Examples in relation to CCI|
|Awareness of need||CCIs are less obvious â€˜charitiesâ€™ than emergency ones – they must take every opportunity to explain their importance and why they are seeking funds.|
|Solicitation||CCIs need to â€˜make the askâ€™ â€“ eg through making professional fundraising a priority|
|Cost/ Benefits||Tax breaks/ benefits to the giver (eg member room)|
|Altruism||Articulating clearly who will benefit.|
|Reputation||Recognizing and celebrating donors|
|Psychological rewards||Celebrating the joy of giving and feeling good about decisions to donate|
|Values||Making sure people believe in the values of CCIs and organisations|
|Efficacy||Demonstrating useful outcomes and positive impacts|
Philanthropy is private giving for public purposes.
This makes it different from â€˜charityâ€™ in various ways â€“ it is bigger, not focused on the poor
In many cases, philanthropy is a social/cultural activity that is participated in by elites.
As Government funding for arts has decreased, many CCIs are more reliant on private giving.
This can involve endowments, gifts, volunteer time through trustees.