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Essentials of Organizational Behavior

Fifteenth Edition

Chapter 5

Personality and Values

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

1

Learning Objectives

5.1 Describe the differences between person-job fit and person-organization fit.

5.2 Describe personality, the way it is measured, and the factors that shape it.

5.3 Describe the strengths and weaknesses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) personality framework, the Big Five Model, and the Dark Triad.

5.4 Discuss how the concepts of core self-evaluation (CSE), self-monitoring, and proactive personality contribute to the understanding of personality.

5.5 Describe how the situation affects whether personality predicts behavior.

5.6 Contrast terminal and instrumental values.

5.7 Compare Hofstede’s five value dimensions and the GLOBE framework.

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

2

Linking Individuals to the Workplace
Learning Objective 5.1

Match of individual’s personality and values with the organization

Holland’s Person-Job Fit Theory

Vocational Preference Inventory Questionnaire

Identifies six personality types

People in jobs congruent with their personality should be more satisfied and less likely to voluntarily resign than people in incongruent tasks

Copyright © 2022, 2018, 2016 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

Years ago, organizations were concerned with personality in order to match individuals to specific jobs. That concern now includes how well the individual’s personality and values match the organization.

Personality and value studies are important to the field of organizational behavior because they have been linked to workplace outcomes. The person-job fit theory developed by John Holland has been critical to thinking about how people fit with a specific job. Holland classified people into six personality types utilizing a vocational preference inventory.

Through the study of personality it has become clear that there are intrinsic differences in personality between people. Given that there are many different jobs, it is logical that people in jobs congruent with their personalities would be more satisfied in their work.

When the personality is matched with the type of occupation, then there are stronger positive work outcomes.

3

Holland’s Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations (Exhibit 5-1)

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Holland’s typology describes the six personality types, their personality characteristics, and examples of congruent occupations for each. Person-job fit strongly predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intentions to quit.

There are cultural implications for person–job fit that speak to workers’ expectations that jobs will be tailored to them. Managers in collectivistic cultures should not violate cultural norms by designing jobs for individuals; rather they should seek people who will likely thrive in jobs that have already been structured.

Long Description:

The details are as below:

Realistic:

Prefers physical activities that require skill, strength, and coordination.

Characteristics: Shy, genuine, persistent, stable, conforming, and practical.

Congruent Occupations: Mechanic, drill press operator, assembly-line worker, and farmer.

Investigative:

Prefers activities that involve thinking, organizing, and understanding.

Characteristics: Analytical, original, curious, and independent.

Congruent Occupations: Biologist, economist, mathematician, and news reporter.

Artistic:

Prefers ambiguous and unsystematic activities that allow creative expression.

Characteristics: Imaginative, disorderly, idealistic, emotional, and impractical.

Congruent Occupations: Painter, musician, writer, interior decorator.

Social:

Prefers activities that involve helping and developing others.

Characteristics: Sociable, friendly, cooperative, understanding.

Congruent Occupations: Social worker, teacher, counselor, and clinical psychologist.

Conventional:

Prefers rule-regulated, orderly, and unambiguous activities.

Characteristics: Conforming, efficient, practical, unimaginative, and inflexible.

Congruent Occupations: Accountant, corporate manager, bank teller, and file clerk.

Enterprising:

Prefers verbal activities in which there are opportunities to influence others and attain power.

Characteristics: Self-confident, ambitious, energetic, and domineering.

Congruent Occupations: Lawyer, real estate agent, public relations specialist, small business manager.

4

Person-Organization Fit

It is more important that employees’ personalities fit with the organizational culture than with the characteristics of any specific job

The fit predicts job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover

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Person-organization fit essentially means that people are attracted to and selected by organizations that match their values, and they leave organizations that are not compatible with their personalities.

Person-job fit and person-organization fit are considered to be the most relevant dimensions for the workplace, but person-group fit is important in team settings, and person-supervisor fit is relevant to job satisfaction and performance outcomes.

5

Personality
Learning Objective 5.2

Personality: the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with the world around us

Personality traits

Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior

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Personality is often defined by characteristics such as outgoing or charming. That is, personality is most often described in terms of measurable traits that a person exhibits such as shy, aggressive, submissive, lazy, ambitious, loyal, and timid.

Personality traits are enduring characteristics that describe an individual.

6

Measuring Personality

Personality assessments are useful in hiring decisions

Help managers forecast who is best for a job

Self-report surveys

Most common

Prone to error

Observer-ratings surveys

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Personality assessments have been increasingly used in diverse organizational settings. Schools have also begun to use personality tests in their admissions process. They are useful in hiring decisions and help managers decide who is best for a job.

Self-reports are the most common and easiest way to measure personality, but they are prone to error due to the fact that the individual is reporting all the data about themselves.

Observer-ratings surveys provide an independent assessment of personality. This has been a better predictor of job success than self-ratings alone.

7

Personality Frameworks:
The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator
Learning Objective 5.3

Most widely used personality-assessment instrument in the world

Individuals are classified as:

Extroverted or Introverted (E/I)

Sensing or Intuitive (S/N)

Thinking or Feeling (T/F)

Judging or Perceiving (J/P)

Classifications combined into 16 personality types (i.e., INTJ or ESTJ)

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The MBTI is the most widely used personality instrument worldwide. Participants are classified within four scales to determine 1 of 16 possible personality types. These types are broken down into four dichotomies. The first is extroverts who tend to be sociable and assertive versus introverts who tend to be quiet and shy. The second dichotomy is sensing and intuitive. Sensors are practical and orderly where intuits utilize unconscious processes. The third dichotomy is thinking and feeling. Thinking focuses on using reason and logic whereas feeling utilizes values and emotions. The final dichotomy is judging and perceiving. Judgers want order and structure whereas perceivers are more flexible and spontaneous.

8

Personality Frameworks: The Big Five Model

Five basic dimensions encompass most of the differences in human personality

Extraversion

Agreeableness

Conscientiousness

Emotional Stability

Openness to Experience

Strongly supported relationship to job performance (especially conscientiousness)

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The Big Five model of personality sets forth that there are five basic dimensions that encompass most of the significant variations in human personalities. The Big Five factors are: Extroversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, Emotional Stability, and Openness to Experience. There is a lot of research that supports the Big Five model, and it has been shown to predict behavior at work in a variety of real-life situations.

Extraversion describes someone who is sociable, gregarious, and assertive. Agreeableness describes someone who is good natured, cooperative, and trusting. Conscientiousness is a measure of personal consistency and reliability. Emotional stability characterizes someone as calm, self-confident and secure. And openness to experience characterizes someone in terms of imagination, artistic sensitivity, and curiosity.

9

Model of How Big Five Traits Influence OB Criteria (Exhibit 5-2)

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As shown, the Big Five traits are related to job performance and also have other implications for work and life.

Long Description:

The details are as below:

Emotional stability: Relevance: Less negative thinking and fewer negative emotions; Less hyper vigilant. Affects: Higher job and life satisfaction; Lower stress levels.

Extraversion: Relevance: Better interpersonal skills; Greater social dominance; More emotional expressive. Affects: Higher performance; Enhanced leadership; Higher job and life satisfaction.

Openness: Relevance: Increased learning; More creative; More flexible and autonomous. Affects: Training performance; Enhanced leadership; More adaptable to change.

Agreeableness: Relevance: Better liked; More compliant and conforming. Affects: Higher performance; Lower levels of deviant behavior.

Conscientiousness: Relevance: Greater effort and persistence; More drive and discipline; Better organized and planning. Affects: Higher performance; Enhanced leadership; Greater longevity.

10

The Dark Triad

The Dark Triad

Machiavellianism

High machs tend to be pragmatic, emotionally distant, and believe the ends justify the means

Narcissism

A person with a grandiose view of self, requires excessive admiration, has a sense of self-entitlement, and is arrogant

Psychopathy

A lack of concern for others, and a lack of guilt or remorse when their actions cause harm

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Researchers have found that three socially undesirable traits called the Dark Triad are relevant to organizational behavior. These traits can literally harm an organization’s financial performance. Sustained high levels of these traits can cause derailment of careers and personal lives as well.

Machiavellianism describes a person who tends to be emotionally distant and believes that the ends justify the means. They tend to have a competitive drive and a need to win.

Narcissism is a trait that often hinders job effectiveness. It describes a person who requires excessive admiration and has a strong sense of self-importance.

Psychopathy refers to a lack of concern for others, and a lack of guilt or remorse when their actions cause harm.

11

Other Frameworks

The HEXACO model

Honesty/humility is added to the Big Five

H dimension

Sincere, fair, modest, and humble

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The HEXACO model incorporates an additional trait into the Big Five framework. The new trait is honesty/humility. HEXACO stands for honesty/humility (H), emotional stability (E), extraversion (X), agreeableness (A), conscientiousness (C), and openness to experience (O).

The new H dimension corresponds to people who are sincere, fair, modest, and humble. The addition of the H dimension adds to the Big Five and has been found to predict ethically relevant outcomes, like abstaining from cheating.

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Other Personality Attributes Relevant to OB
Learning Objective 5.4

Core self-evaluations

People with positive core self-evaluation like themselves and see themselves as capable and effective in the workplace

Self-monitoring

Ability to adjust behavior to meet external, situational factors

Proactive personality

Identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until meaningful change occurs

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People with positive CSE perform better because they set more ambitious goals, are more committed to their goals, and persist longer in attempting to reach them.

Self-monitoring is another personality trait that is linked to job performance. It is the ability to adjust behavior to meet situational factors. High monitors are more likely to become leaders in the workplace.

Proactive personalities are people who are able to identify opportunities and take action to capitalize on that opportunity. They also have the ability to persevere through difficulties to meet their goals.

13

Personality and Situations
Learning Objective 5.5

The effect of particular traits on organization behavior depends on the situation

Two frameworks

Situation Strength Theory

Trait Activation Theory

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The effect of traits on behavior depends on the situation. Two theoretical frameworks can help describe how the context or situations can influence personality and behavior in the workplace. These are Situation Strength Theory and Trait Activation Theory (TAT).

14

Situation Strength Theory

The way personality translates into behavior depends on the strength of the situation

Components of situation strength

Clarity

Consistency

Constraints

Consequences

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Strong situations pressure us to exhibit the right behavior, clearly show us what that behavior is, and discourage the wrong behavior. In weak situations, “anything goes,” and thus we are freer to express our personality in our behaviors. Thus, research suggests that personality traits better predict behavior in weak situations than in strong ones.

Clarity is the degree to which cues about work duties and responsibilities are available and clear. Consistency is the extent to which cues regarding work duties and responsibilities are compatible with one another. Constraints are the extent to which individuals’ freedom to decide or act is limited by forces outside their control. And consequences are the degree to which decisions or actions have important implications for the organization or its members.

15

Trait Activation Theory

Trait activation theory (TAT)

predicts that some situations, events, or interventions “activate” a trait more than others

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Trait activation theory (TAT) predicts that some situations, events, or interventions “activate” a trait more than others.

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Trait Activation Theory: Jobs in Which Certain Big Five Traits Are More Relevant (Exhibit 5-3)

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Using Trait Activation Theory, we can foresee which jobs suit certain personalities.

Long Description:

The jobs are divided into two categories based on the score: High and low.

List of jobs scoring high (the traits listed here should predict behavior in these jobs) are as below:

Detail orientation required: Air traffic controller, accountant, and legal secretary.

Social skills required: Clergy, therapist, and concierge.

Competitive work: Coach or scout, financial manager, and sales representative.

Innovation required: Actor, systems analyst, and advertising writer.

Dealing with angry people: Correctional officer, telemarketer, and flight attendant.

Time pressure or deadlines: Broadcast news analyst, editor, and airline pilot.

List of jobs scoring low (the traits listed here should not predict behavior in these jobs) are as below:

Detail orientation required: Forester, masseuse, and model.

Social skills required: Software engineer, pump operator, and broadcast technician.

Competitive work: Postal clerk, historian, and nuclear reactor operator.

Innovation required: Court reporter, archivist, and medical technician.

Dealing with angry people: Composer, biologist, and statistician.

Time pressure or deadlines: Skincare specialist, mathematician, and fitness trainer.

 

Jobs that score high activate these traits (make them more relevant to predicting behavior)

Detail orientation: Conscientiousness plus.

Social skills required: Extraversion plus and agreeableness plus.

Competitive work: Extraversion plus and agreeableness minus.

Innovation required: Openness plus

Dealing with angry people: Extraversion plus, agreeableness plus, and neuroticism minus.

Time pressure or deadlines: Conscientiousness plus and neuroticism minus.

Note: A plus sign means individuals who score high on this trait should do better in this job. A minus sign means individuals who score low on this trait should do better in this job.

17

Values

Values

Relatively basic, enduring convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence

Value systems

Represent a prioritizing of individual values by:

Content

Intensity

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At the heart of all organizations lie a set of values that are central to their mission. Values represent basic convictions that make judgments about what is the best mode of conduct or end-state of existence. They have both content and intensity attributes. When we rank values in terms of intensity, we obtain that person’s value system.

Value systems represent individual values and prioritizes them based on how important the particular value is to the individual and how intense their feelings are about that particular value. The way individuals set up their values in order of importance is relatively stable over time. The content attribute says a mode of conduct or end-state of existence is important. The intensity attribute specifies how important it is.

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Terminal versus Instrumental Values
Learning Objective 5.6

Terminal values: desirable end-states of existence

Goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime

Instrumental values: preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving the terminal values

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Milton Rokeach argued we can separate values into two categories: terminal values and instrumental values. Terminal values describe end-states or the desired values/goals a person would like to keep/achieve through their lifetime. Instrumental values are the preferred modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values.

Values vary between groups and can cause trouble when group members hold different values and negotiation is needed.

19

Generational Values

Shared views of different cohorts/generations in the U.S. workforce

Lack solid research support

Perpetuate stereotypes

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The shared views of different cohorts or generations in the U.S. workforce have been captured, but these classifications generally lack solid research support. Despite the lack of support for the validity of generational values, support has been provided for differences in how people perceive those of other generations. Stereotypes have been applied that affect workplace decisions. Even with little validity, these differences are still perpetuated as stereotypes.

20

Cultural Values
Learning Objective 5.7

Values are learned and differ across cultures

Two frameworks for assessing culture:

Hofstede

GLOBE

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Unlike personality, values are learned. They are passed down through generations and they vary by culture.

Geert Hofstede developed a framework for assessing culture. He breaks up his framework of understanding into five value dimensions: power distance, individualism versus collectivism, masculinity versus femininity, uncertainty avoidance, and long-term versus short-term orientation.

The GLOBE, as discussed earlier, is also helpful in framing differences between cultures.

21

Hofstede’s Framework

Power Distance

Individualism vs. Collectivism

Masculinity vs. Femininity

Uncertainty Avoidance

Long-term vs. Short-term Orientation

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Geert Hofstede found managers and employees varied on five value dimensions of national culture.

Power distance is the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally. Low distance occurs when there is relatively equal power between those with status and wealth and those without. Higher distance occurs when there is unequal power distribution between groups.

The second component in Hofstede’s framework is individualism vs. collectivism. Individualism is the degree to which people prefer to act on their own rather than in a group. Collectivism is the idea that people operate within a social framework where they help others out and they expect help when they need it.

Hofstede offers a third component in his model that distinguishes between masculinity and femininity. Masculinity is the extent to which the culture prefers achievement, power, and control versus characteristics that reflect little differentiation between male and female roles.

The fourth component is uncertainty avoidance. This is the extent to which a society is willing to live with uncertainty and ambiguity. High uncertainty avoidance cultures will try to avoid ambiguous situations as much as possible. Lower uncertainty avoidance cultures do not mind ambiguity.

The final component is time orientation. Long-term orientation societies will emphasize the future and what it takes to get to the future they desire – thrift and persistence. Short-term orientation societies will emphasize the here and now.

In recent years, Hofstede has proposed an additional dimension, indulgence versus restraint. This refers to the emphasis on enjoying life and having fun versus regulating conduct through strict social norms.

22

The GLOBE Framework

Assertiveness

Future orientation

Gender differentiation

Uncertainty avoidance

Power distance

Individualism/ collectivism

In-group collectivism

Performance orientation

Humane orientation

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The Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) framework is an ongoing research program that takes a look at nine dimensions of national culture. It is similar to Hofstede’s model but adds the humane and performance orientations. The humane orientation looks at how much society rewards people for being altruistic and kind, where the performance orientation looks at how much society encourages and rewards good work.

The GLOBE framework expands upon the Hofstede framework in a number of ways.

23

Hofstede and GLOBE (Exhibit 5-5)

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Both frameworks have a lot in common and often lead to similar conclusions.

Long Description:

The details of Hofstede’s dimensions and GLOBE respectively are as follows:

Power distance:

Hofstede’s dimensions: Extent to which a society accepts an unequal distribution of power.

GLOBE: Extent to which a society accepts an unequal distribution of power.

Uncertainty avoidance:

Hofstede’s dimensions: Extent to which a society feels threatened by and avoids ambiguity.

GLOBE: Extent to which a society seeks orderliness, structure, and laws to avoid ambiguity.

Long-term orientation:

Hofstede’s dimensions: Extent to which a society emphasizes the future and persistence (versus the present and the change.)

Future orientation:

GLOBE: Extent to which a society believes their actions can influence the future.

Collectivism:

Hofstede’s dimensions: Extent to which a society emphasizes acting as a tight-knit collective (versus as independent individuals.)

Institutional collectivism:

GLOBE: Extent to which a society supports collective action and resource distribution.

Masculinity:

Hofstede’s dimensions: Extent to which a society favors traditional, masculine roles such as power and control (versus little differentiation of gender roles.)

In-group collectivism:

GLOBE: Extent to which a society values loyalty, pride, patriotism, and cohesion.

Gender egalitarianism:

GLOBE: Extent to which a society de-emphasizes traditional gender roles.

Assertiveness:

GLOBE: Extent to which a society emphasizes confidence and advocating for what one wants.

Humane orientation:

GLOBE: Extent to which a society values caring, friendliness, altruism, fairness, kindness, and generosity.

Performance orientation:

GLOBE: Extent to which a society values producing results, excellence, and productivity.

24

Implications for Managers

Consider job candidates’ fit to the job and organization.

Emphasize the ideal personality and values of your organization in your recruitment materials and practices.

Understand that situation strength and the context can affect behavior.

Understand differences in cultural values to equip you to interact with others from cultures that are different from your own.

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Discussion Questions (1 of 2)

How might HR departments in organizations utilize Holland’s Typology of Personality and Congruent Occupations in career management? How can recruiters develop interview questions around this typology?

Discuss specific examples of how the Dark Triad can derail an individual’s career. How do individuals guard against this?

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Discussion Questions (2 of 2)

Generational values lack solid research support. Yet differences are perpetuated as stereotypes. Discuss several of these stereotypes and why they are detrimental to organizations.

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Copyright

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