A Phenomenological Qualitative Research Approach
Regarding the Lack of Financial Literacy Taught in School
A Dissertation Presented in Partial Fulfillment
of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Education
University of Phoenix
The Dissertation Committee for Jennifer Vitale certifies approval of the following dissertation:
Joshua Valk, PhD, Chair
Marie Peoples, PhD, University Research Methodologist
James Smith, EdD, Panel Validator
Hinrich Eylers, PhD
Vice Provost, Doctoral Studies
University of Phoenix
Date Approved: ____________
[To be indented and completed upon full dissertation completion]
[To be indented and completed upon full dissertation completion]
TABLE OF CONTENTS
List of Tables x
List of Figures x
Preface (optional) x
Chapter 1: Introduction x
Background of the Problem x
Problem Statement x
Purpose of the Study x
Population and Sample x
Significance of the Study x
Nature of the Study x
Research Questions/Hypotheses x
Theoretical or Conceptual Framework x
Definition of Terms x
Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations x
Chapter 2: Literature Review x
Title Searches and Documentation x
Historical Content x
Current Content x
Theoretical or Conceptual Framework Literature x
Methodological Literature x
Research Design Literature x
Chapter Summary x
Chapter 3: Research Methodology x
Research Method and Design Appropriateness x
Research Questions/Hypotheses x
Population and Sample x
Informed Consent and Confidentiality x
Field Test or
Pilot Test x
Credibility and Transferability or Validity and Reliability x
Data Collection x
Data Analysis x
Chapter Summary x
Chapter 4: Analysis and Results x
Research Questions/Hypotheses x
Data Collection x
Pilot Study x
Data Analysis x
Chapter Summary x
Chapter 5: Conclusions and Recommendations x
Research Questions/Hypotheses x
Discussion of Findings x
Recommendations for Leaders and Practitioners x
Recommendations for Future Research x
Chapter Summary x
Appendix A: Title x
Appendix B: Title x
Appendix C: Title x
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1: Title x
Table 2: Title x
LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1: Title x
Figure 2: Title x
[Only include a List of Figures if there are two or more figures. Use title case, defined as capitalizing key words, for figure titles.]
UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX
Education about financial literacy is an important subject that could help students handle money. Students who acquire this knowledge could make sound financial decisions to avoid common financial inaccuracies. As Amagir et al. (2018) mentioned in their systematic literature, individuals who lack financial literacy make errors when paying their financial obligations. As a result, the emphasis of this study will be on the financial education gaps that exist in schools, the repercussions of these gaps, and possible remedies. An exploration of the gap between financial education and its incorporation into elementary schools will occur in this study.
According to Amagir et al. (2018), financial education is characterized as the capacity to make appropriate financial judgments in the face of adversity. Teaching children about financial education tools may assist them in developing more skills and judgment while dealing with money in school. Financial literacy training and adoption benefit both knowledgeable young people and the global community due to their efforts. A bright future is established when youngsters are educated about personal money and financial literacy (Amagir et al., 2018).
In addition, Amagir (2018) suggests that the leading ticket towards living a debt-free life is knowledge about financial management, which can only be achieved through lessons taught in classes. Youths have always manifested confidence in the way they use money, and in fact, most of them believe they are knowledgeable concerning the use of money. However, in real life, the youth struggle with planning their finances, which predisposes them to a life full of debts while they are still young (Amagir et al., 2018). This excessive confidence and awareness are barriers that need to be cleared out through financial education.
There are different programs that a typical school should implement to help train and educate students on matters related to finance. However, most schools focus on programs that emphasize practical didactics and theory-based (Blue & Grootenboer, 2019). Most of these didactics are based on benefit plans, which do not fully cover the main concepts of financial literacy. As a result, the school’s students and members (principals, administrators, teachers, housekeepers, secretaries, police officers, guidance counselors, and cafeteria workers) have some financial literacy misconceptions.
Background of the Problem
Large numbers of children and teenagers may have money management challenges in the future because of lack of financial knowledge and comprehension (Blue & Grootenboer, 2019). Therefore, individuals establish poor money habits and become unable to manage their funds in the future efficiently. When it comes to young people, inadequate budgets are usually the result of bad financial habits, driven by a lack of financial literacy. According to Amager et al. (2018), it is projected that 20 percent of high school seniors who participate in savings programs or open savings accounts will graduate with financial discipline and literacy skills. Their concern is that as their children get older, they will be unable to comprehend the fundamentals of saving, spending, and earning money and the fundamentals of checking and balancing their checkbooks and bank accounts (Faulkner, 2017). Education in Financial literacy is becoming more critical for children as they learn to be self-sufficient, take responsibility, be independent, and be accountable for their actions.
After completing the financial literacy program, students who have received financial education have an essential awareness of the financial markets, investment opportunities, and financial planning compared to those who have not received any training (Aboagye & Jung, 2018). Student debt, which is becoming a more serious issue for young people, can be avoided when financial management knowledge is taught to students. Financial management methods are identifiable, especially when dealing with well-informed and well-prepared specialists, while some financial management strategies are more challenging to detect (Aboagye & Jung, 2018). This is because well-informed individuals will anticipate dangers and argue-justify issues relevant to their academic endeavors (Amagir et al., 2018). Since individual financial well-being significantly impacts the economy, financial knowledge inside educational institutions is more vital than ever.
The research demonstrates that an alarmingly significant proportion of individuals are prone to spiraling debt and financial traps because the existing educational system devotes little to no time to studying such concepts (Aboagye & Jung, 2018). This idea is because a sizable proportion of teens and adolescents cannot make appropriate financial judgments (Aboagye & Jung, 2018).
It is necessary to comprehend the burden it alleviates and how it helps grow a nation or family. To implement financial education successfully, prudent financial management increases family benefits and avoids debt and associated instruments (Aboagye & Jung, 2018). This idea might be seen as an investment in human capital to ensure that the necessary choices are made to ensure that financial commitments are correctly understood. The modern world has become increasingly tricky regarding business and enterprise making it critical for a financial education (Aboagye & Jung, 2018).
One of the most critical components of education is the policies that school boards enact and the availability of education to all children (Kasman, Heuberger, & Hammond, 2018). Unfortunately, this education has resulted in a lack of awareness about how financial choices should be considered while planning for the future and the long-term ramifications. Understanding our knowledge and behavior is one of the most fundamental ways to predict which actions to avoid and engage in to make sound judgments (Aboagye & Jung, 2018). Therefore, it is critical to acquire the necessary information and take focused action to gain such benefits.
Positive attitudes and self-confidence are also helpful when confronted with financial troubles. This idea is because they play a critical role in ensuring that decisions are made rationally and are not based on inaccurate or misleading information. This target can only be accomplished via vigilance and ensuring that decisions reflect both short- and long-term advantages (Faulkner, 2017). Consequently, present and future financial choices made with financial education in mind may decrease the number of financial errors made throughout maturity and adolescence benefit everyone.
The problem of financial illiteracy among young people is the subject of the research study. Compared to past generations, a more significant proportion of teens and young people now lack the financial discipline that should have been taught in financial education courses in the first place (Lusardi, 2019). According to Amager et al. (2020), financial education for teens and young people is notably inadequate in the United States. Therefore, it is necessary to build financial literacy programs in schools because children and teenagers who do not have financial literacy do not have economic wealth, and the country does not profit from their lack of understanding (Lusardi, 2019). Furthermore, because most young people do not recognize the importance of financial education, schools should further ensure that students have access to vital financial education programs.
Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to finish research on the subject of financial literacy among adolescents and teenagers. The examination will take place inside a school system in the southeast region of the United States. The objectives of the study are to identify the gaps in the financial literacy education in the schools within urban communities. Secondly to determine the long-term consequences of insufficient financial education for youths and teens within urban communities.
Population and Sample
Principals from schools around the district of the urban community, will be interviewed. Curriculum developers will also be interviewed. According to Amagir et al. (2018), the school district within the southeast region, has about 180 schools, and a principal leads each school, so that means only 11.1% of the principals will be involved. So instead, a random selection technique will pick twenty principals and curriculum developers from the district’s schools. Random selection is done to ensure the number of the principal selected is not biased. A well balanced selection for the research from the individuals will give a well representation of the analysis results from the region of study.
Significance of the Study
The study on financial literacy is critical to individuals, the state, and the U.S. government. The economy of the United States is heavily reliant on sound financial planning. For example, young people are well-versed in the subject of money management. In that situation, it is beneficial to the economy of both the United States and Florida since adequate financial education leads to intelligent financial planning, which stimulates economic growth (Hennink et al., 2020). In addition, the study of financial literacy in elementary schools will also assist policymakers in curriculum development in planning to introduce comprehensive financial literacy programs in these institutions of higher learning (Bakar and Bakar, 2020). These programs are designed to help teenagers and young adults manage their money by providing broad information. In addition, they are meant to teach students to be financially responsible citizens and parents (Jamshed, 2014).
Students understand the fundamentals of financial markets, investment options, and financial budgeting when financial literacy is taught to them. Consequently, students will avoid being burdened by debt, becoming increasingly common among young adults. In addition, it is not difficult to recognize specific financial management tactics, particularly when engaging with well-informed and well-prepared experts. Consequently, financial literacy students will debate with well-educated and informed persons since they will anticipate dangers and argue-justify issues relevant to their studies (Amagir et al., 2018). Because people’s financial well-being affects the economy, the Economic Policy Institute reports an increasing need to polarize financial knowledge inside educational institutions.
Nature of the Study
The qualitative research method will be employed to collect, compare, and analyze the various types of information gathered via interviews (Hennink et al., 2020). Because the data for this research will be gathered through interviews and observations, the qualitative technique is the most appropriate. In addition, the information will be investigated using a narrative data analysis design, which will be implemented. The narratives will examine the words or experiences shared during the interviews to identify any gaps in financial education within the southeastern school system.
A significant benefit of using qualitative research to assess financial literacy in education is producing the volume of material necessary to answer the study questions on financial literacy (Omar & Inaba, 2020). In addition, the knowledge offered is exclusive to the qualitative sector of financial education. Finally, since qualitative research is subjective, it will help researchers understand why financial illiteracy is so pervasive among adolescents and teens in the United States (Hennink et al., 2020).
Qualitative technique will give background and an overview of financial literacy in schools, it is the most appropriate methodology for this research project. In addition, the findings of ethnographic research will influence the design since, the study will get to interact with the sample population in the real time envrionment. This is because it enables the gathering of first-hand knowledge. Direct observation and questionnaire interviews will be utilized to gather information for this project (Jamshed, 2014). The participants will respond to interview questions on the level of financial literacy in their schools and the consequences, in their opinion, of a lack of financial awareness on the part of the participants.
Qualitative research methods should be used to address financial literacy concerns since they will provide in-depth insights into financial literacy and its effects on teens and young adults. Aside from that, since information will be gathered via interviews and direct observations, the qualitative research approach will be more cost-effective. However, it is difficult to overcome the issue of bias in data analysis, even if the grounded technique will be utilized to do so. This is the most significant disadvantage. Consequently, their conclusions may not be accurate due to prejudice, the results, and conclusions on financial literacy in schools and how it impacts kids and teens.
The research questions will be used to facilitate the qualitative research method to gather more information concerning the financial literacy in elementary schools. There are three research questions.
1. What are financial illiteracy shortcomings in financial education in the selected community?
2. What are the effects of financial illiteracy on the youth and teens within the community?
3. What measures should be implemented to address the financial illiteracy disparities in financial education seen in schools?
According to Champlain (2019), University of California, Berkeley students are still battling to pay off enormous sums of student debt. In today’s environment, business owners are particularly disappointed with the lack of preparation and financial awareness of fresh graduates and potential recruits (Axelrod et al., 2018). For most kids, financial literacy is simply another subject in their class. According to Champlain (2019), students are prepared to pass the test only to live over their means of subsistence, are unable to acquire a house, are unable to enroll in a monthly insurance plan, and are unable even to begin to plan for retirement due to the enormous lump amount of debt accrued. Forty-four percent of Americans are predicted to be unable to afford a $400 emergency bill without acquiring debt (Champlain, 2019). Sixty-six percent of Americans have less than $10,000 saved for retirement (Axelrod et al., 2018). Some of these abilities should be taught to children by their parents; unfortunately, many parents are saddled with significant debt.
Financial illiteracy is anticipated to become the norm for a big part of the population if youngsters are not taught financial skills at home. Several scholars, notably Axelrod et al. (2018), argue that schools should simply supplement what parents teach their children. According to a financial literacy assessment, 27 states earned a “C” or below on the scale. Although most schools are mandated to teach mathematics, they are not compelled to teach children finance-related content such as the idea of compound interest or how to prepare a tax return (Champlain, 2019). Teaching personal finance in a condensed style and expecting primary outcomes is a doable and successful duty for educational institutions. Students who are learning to save their pocket money should behave in a manner that helps them put what they have learned in school into practice. This is owing to its massive influence on developing financial literacy in schools (Kirkham, 2016).
Definition of Terms
Financial discipline. Kirkham (2016) suggests that financial discipline is the ability to regulate your spending and saving following the financial objectives you’ve set for yourself in financial management.
Curriculum developers. According to Lusardi (2019), Curriculum developers are elementary, middle, and high school instructors who construct instructional ways to help pupils improve their learning ability. In addition, they are in charge of devising instructional strategies for pupils in grades K-12.
Financial budgeting. According to Kirkham (2016), financial budgeting is the process of calculating how much money you will make over a certain period and planning how much you will spend, save, and borrow during that time: If you want to pay off your mortgage sooner rather than later, financial planning is essential.
Assumptions, Limitations, and Delimitations
The first assumption in the study is the concept of financial information is based on the premise that less-educated persons have higher distances to travel regarding information collecting and distribution. As a result, when they consult with an expert, they save money on data and search costs. However, the misunderstanding of adult education, psychology, and behavior change research, as well as sociocultural variables also contribute to students’ academic failure (Lusardi, 2019).
Another assumption is that someone experiencing financial difficulties may assume they do not have adequate financial resources; otherwise, the difficulties would not have occurred. One solution is to educate people about their triumphs and faults, a core element of American philosophical theory and practice. Another theory is that education in financial subjects will boost people’s literacies and, consequently, their financial well-being due to this permit. As a consequence of this assumption, non-fiction is omitted from the adult education mindset and behavior variance study (Lusardi, 2019).
Before the examination starts, it highlights the research’s limits by concentrating on teaching rather than the reasons for such changes in educational systems. Several ways may be used to ensure an accurate understanding of the subject. The first step is recognizing that the ultimate authority for these gaps lies in establishing a clear separation between the education system and the policies.
This study uses qualitative research approaches to identify present gaps in financial education, which entails gathering first-hand information rather than depending only on existing literature. Because there are only a limited number of interviews that may be adequately inferred and assessed in terms of financial literacy understanding, the number of interviews accessible is limited. As a consequence of the need to develop narratives from a set number of interviews to gather information on the gaps, there will be a skewed point of view (Skagerlund et al., 2018). Consequently, the information will be confined to this specific group of persons who do not fulfill any established requirements or have experience in a weak financial education system.
Furthermore, the limited scope of the theoretical framework to focus on college students as a genuine aspect of lack of financial education limits the extent to which there is a gap. This is because students are provided with academic opportunities, which they end up repaying when they are employed (Skagerlund et al., 2018). The massive number of default and struggling payments is due to the increasing unemployment rate and, therefore, a lack of means to ensure the utilization of such education (Aboagye & Jung, 2018). It biases the study to show only the failing students who did not have any education in addition to those who may have had opportunities to learn and benefit from extra-curricular financial education programs.
The purpose of research restrictions is to clearly define where the scope of a study ends in terms of financial education and the gap in Florida schools. The study’s limitations will include measuring the degree trust in information and if it can be effectively used to create robust financial literacy for young learners. There is virtually little academic material relating to financial thinking and dialogue accessible to pupils.
Qualitative research is being employed to investigate financial literacy in education since it can provide adequate information to answer the financial literacy study questions. Qualitative data will make it simpler to ensure that the information provided is relevant to education (Aboagye & Jung, 2018). The limitations of this study are that it only allows for the assessment of various educational materials and does not consider the rules in place to ensure that the standards and content taught in schools are up to grade.
The bulk of financial choices high school graduates may be attributed to a lack of financial literacy. This includes comparing the typical children to cover financial crises. Theoretically, the financial literacy debate aims to assess the level of financial literacy among youngsters and the degree to which it is taught in schools. Various scholars have said that lack of financial knowledge leads to young people making unwise judgments. Amagir et al. (2018) evaluated the school curriculum’s financial literacy for adolescents and children. They emphasized the disparity in financial education and how inadequate financial literacy is taught to youngsters (Aboagye & Jung, 2018).
Financial education may be introduced in schools in numerous ways. First, ensuring that the educational system adequately explains how financial choices and information are made. Authors have suggested numerous approaches to introduce education into the curriculum appropriately. One of the most prevalent methods is to ensure pupils have such chances to gain the financial literacy knowledge (Aboagye & Jung, 2018). Financial literacy helps youngsters establish and grasp the basic building blocks of financial education. After confirming the presence of an essential curriculum element, the education system’s effectiveness is assessed. Low financial education is linked to negative credit financial behaviors. High debts, foreclosures, and unpleasant mortgage options are examples. This trend has been proven to affect adults and even youngsters and adolescents who lack financial knowledge.
Titles Search and Documentation
The reviewed articles were selected and categorized by a panel of three reviewers who worked collaboratively. Several phases in the decision-making process were necessary to identify and classify articles based on their empirical and descriptive results (Bamforth et al., 2018). As a consequence, the sample population were separated into groups based on their intended audience (students vs. adult learners vs. females versus men, among others) and their financial behavior (e.g., saving versus spending) (e.g., saving versus spending).
To begin, each journal issue was examined before a decision was made on which papers would be included in the research. Whenever the decisions could not break a tie of two or more reviewers, the decision of a third reviewer was utilized to break the tie. Only articles published in scientific and peer-reviewed publications specialized in financial management topics were considered for the rating. A relatively equal distribution of the 95 items chosen for evaluation was then made among the three assigned reviewers (OkumuÅŸ, 2017). Following that, each reviewer conducted their study on the papers provided to them and prepared a summary abstract for each article they had read. The abstracts served as the foundation for the subsequent categorization step.
The quantitative component of the study made use of experimental methodologies. In contrast, the qualitative component made use of a case study methodology to address the concerns that the researchers had found. The quantitative component of the study used an experimental design to determine the connections between variables and determine their causes and effects on one another. It is composed of information that the researcher wants to collect and observe (Cohen, 2008). It was decided that further investigation would be carried out. According to OkumuÅŸ (2017), a case study is a research approach that helps the researcher to get a comprehensive understanding of a subject or issue from all perspectives. Therefore, a case study was employed to conduct the qualitative portion of the research. The measurement tools used in the research were selected by the ethical committee of the affiliated institution.
Depending on their target audience (students, adult learners, women, and others) and financial behavior, they were grouped into three groups (retirement planning, investment choice decisions, economic well-being, and articles about the financial literacy process and structure). Articles were categorized either descriptively or empirically; however, the categories under each of these viewpoints were not mutually exclusive, and so a single item might be classified in many categories at the time of classification (Bamforth et al., 2018). A consensus-based decision-making technique was chosen for the classification process, which was carried out in the presence of all three reviewers and resulted in the categorization of the documents being reviewed. The debate on the proper classification of each item lasted an average of 10 to 20 minutes per item, depending on the topic.
In 2015, a research study pinpointed that most of the country’s youth and adolescents are responsible for over $91 billion in debt due to their lack of understanding of the financial system. Therefore, a lack of understanding of the financial system is considered a huge challenges of the modern age. Failure to understand the importance usually leads to an array of consequences. Some of them include high-level spending on poor credit management of funds, among other reasons that have been credited as some of the forefront decisions made in light of lack of such education (Jamshed, 2014).
There are a high number of seniors are graduating with little to no information regarding the aspects of financial literacy. This is because of the limited information regarding financial literacy in their academic curriculum, leading to little preparation (Jamshed, 2014). If the curriculum were in place, there wouldn’t be an increased number of learners with no concept of financial literacy, leading to more successful students and young adults. Such education allows them to budget their finances properly, make proper investment choices, and even understand financial markets (Lusardi et al., 2015). This allows them to understand finance and manipulate them to ensure their way out of debt. It also increases their horizons to understand decisions, patterns, and techniques implemented in the markets and benefit the student.
There has been a record of many students in Florida who do not have any financial literacy classes. This is because of the number of educational materials available at their disposal during their studies(Lusardi et al., 2015). As a result, many students tend to finish school with little knowledge about how financial circumstances operate and work in life. The number of students in the state that are missing out on crucial financial lessons has increased significantly. The complex way of life requires various financial skills to survive. The lack of this knowledge spells doom for students from the county. When considering the current patterns of decisions, we tend to find out that there was a gap in education material in the country concerning financial education.
Naturally, the beginning point of the discussion would be to establish the importance of having such literacy courses taught in schools. Various studies have indicated the difference between counties that offer this form of education and those that do not. The difference was perceivable in the credit scores where the number of students who performed well in terms of financial decisions as those who received some education in some form or the other. The impact and benefit are broadly felt from homes that parents did not have the opportunity to learn and understand the inner working of financial education and its importance on life.
While considering the relevance of this project, keep in mind that some parents may be hostile to it because it was seen as undermining the validity of scholarships and the availability of student loans. While this may be advantageous to the student’s educational aspirations, it just serves to assist them in deciding which options they have and which opportunities are open to them in the first place (Jamshed, 2014). The biggest downside would be the disadvantage it would bring about for the county since there would be less funding devoted to financing higher education.
I tend to argue that this fear is based on the unforeseen benefits of financial education. First, a reduction in student loans would mean increased success in seeking and determining education. This benefits the young learners and adolescents even more to make correct decisions for their credit score. On top of that, having increased financial education would mean the capability to understand and benefit from various scholarships in college without the burden of getting into debt (Kirkham, 2016).
While this might be the case, it was also crucial to establish boundaries in terms of learning and ensure that only those interested in the initiatives would be allowed to participate in the learning programs that further their financial literacy. This aspect of inclusion would mean that there is the benefit of choice, and those who feel not interested in such education material can opt-out. It is crucial to understand the difference in perspective and how financial education can be undertaken in this circumstance. This case has seen various households not benefit from discussions revolving around financial education.
From a historical perspective, we understand the importance of the literacy classes and why policy indicated and supported the lack of such educational material. The significant number of schools and school districts from the data collection pool indicates an oversight from curriculum developers and instructors over the importance of financial education in schools within the county.
To further determine the country’s economic success, historical data was used to determine the extent to which adults and the financial economy were fairing. This information was generated utilizing data from various income statements from prominent businesses. On top of that, financial records of various governmental bodies and their analysis of cause and effect in terms of economic periods determined the extent of financial preparation (Kirkham, 2016). To this extent, we can credibly deduce that there is a significant impact on adult decisions and their understanding of financial literacy. There have been high numbers of individuals who make their decisions based on the information received and the actions of others.
The majority of the information collected during this data collection period led to the eventual global economic collapse of the financial system. This was due to poor decision-making and knowledge in investing and making sound decisions. The significant loss saw the dwindling financial hopes of individuals who had made huge decisions, and those who lived with debt were hit the hardest with a lack of recourse due to their vast debts(Kirkham, 2016). Even when the economy recovers, it only leads to more debts, translating to poor financial decisions.
As Americans began to question their ideals at home, they also began to question their value as models for other countries. Financial considerations may have also played a role in that government agencies and private foundations began to lose interest in the role of law in the development process. So academics were deprived of necessary financial support (Nakano & Muniz, 2018). However, the primary cause for the law and development movement’s demise was the widespread belief that it failed. Trubek and Galanter argue in “Scholars and Self-Estrangement” that the notion that American liberal legalism could be efficiently transmitted to liberal emerging nations was erroneous. They argued that the circumstances necessary for the efficient implementation of the liberal legal paradigm were opposed to reality in rising nations.
According to the findings, an alarmingly large number of people are vulnerable to escalating debt and financial traps (Faulkner, 2017). Unfortunately, the current educational system provides little to no attention to studying financial literacy subjects (Aboagye & Jung, 2018). This is because a substantial minority of teenagers and adolescents are incapable of making sound financial decisions. This is due to a learning gap in educational institutions. As a result, people make decisions that inadvertently damage their financial prospects due to their inability to comprehend how some financially complicated circumstances function (Nakano & Muniz, 2018).
To properly implement financial education, it is vital to understand the stress that it relieves and how it contributes to the progress of a country or family. Because careful financial management leads to improved advantages for a family and the avoidance of debt and related instruments (Aboagye & Jung, 2018), this might be seen as an investment in human capital to make the appropriate decisions to guarantee financial obligations are fully understood. As the contemporary world has become more challenging in conducting business and industry, having a fundamental understanding of financial education has become vital (Aboagye & Jung, 2018).
The rules that school boards establish and the availability of education to all students are crucial. One of the elements to consider when considering whether to incorporate financial literacy instruction in the school curriculum is the long-term advantage that such education will provide (Faulkner, 2017). Due to a lack of this knowledge, there is a lack of understanding regarding the degree to which financial decisions should be considered when preparing for the future and the long-term repercussions of such choices. Understanding our knowledge and conduct is one of the most basic ways to forecast which activities to avoid and participate in to make sound decisions (Aboagye & Jung, 2018). Therefore, it is vital to gather the appropriate knowledge and take focused action to reap such rewards.
When dealing with financial difficulties, positive attitudes and self-confidence are also beneficial. This is due to their crucial function in ensuring that judgments are sensible and not based on incorrect or misleading information. This can only be done by attention and ensuring that choices are made with both short- and long-term benefits in mind (Faulkner, 2017). As a result, existing and future financial education-informed initiatives may decrease the number of financial errors made throughout maturity and childhood, benefit everyone.
A thorough search of all materials and instructions related to financial literacy in schools was conducted. The results will be examined to determine the extent to which schools intervene and aid their pupils (Faulkner, 2017). Based on the evaluation of articles, papers, texts, and records, it was determined that if a knowledge database exists, it is suitable and suitably accessible for students and guided teaching with an expert (Faulkner, 2017).
Examining financial education budgets suggests that there is a possibility that too little money is spent on financial education (Faulkner, 2017). According to several writers, the absence of financial education in schools is due, among other things, to budget cutbacks and a lack of legislation that encourages more outstanding funds to be allocated to it (Aboagye & Jung, 2018).
Theoretical or Conceptual Framework Literature
As the fight against massive financial debt gains momentum, an increasing number of college students are joining the fray. While a sizable portion of the population lives paycheck to paycheck, this indicates that a sizable portion of the population is financially illiterate and unaware of the consequences of their financial choices. Due to the disproportional level of readiness and financial knowledge individuals possess when starting a new job or changing jobs (Skagerlund et al., 2018). Despite its critical nature, students frequently misunderstand and underestimate this concept as a necessary component of life. This incident sparked a debate about the argument’s purpose and the consequences of its conclusion. A sizable proportion of adults, children, and adolescents may be financially illiterate, possibly due to a lack of financial education throughout their academic careers.
Financial literacy may seem a simple idea to acquire and comprehend theoretically. However, as seen by many people in debt, this has proved to be drastically different in terms of practical implementation. When it comes to education, the vast majority of teaching is often done to ensure that students complete their courses, get little practical benefit outside of the classroom, and pass their tests. This leaves financial literacy as nothing more than a subject taught to ensure that students meet the certified qualification in instruction in various subjects without regard for how they can be utilized (Draper, 2019). This is discernible in how students can make certain life decisions such as purchasing a home, monthly insurance plans, and even saving for their retirement benefits. Such limitations to the understanding and practicality of finance leave an ideological gap that seeks to fulfill academic qualifications and not the understanding of debt and the financial systems.
According to various surveys, rough estimates have been provided about Americans’ quality of living. It has been approximated that roughly almost half the population could not settle emergency fees of $400 or more without accruing debt. Similarly, shocking figures indicate that a large number of working Americans do not have sufficient savings in their retirement accounts due to these enormous amounts of debt (Bamforth et al., 2018). This knowledge cannot be accurately passed on to children due to debts that they have accrued, making for a generation of households that accept the norm of financial illiteracy. As the adults barely know any better, their children are more likely to fall into similar patterns that sound dangerous to their futures.
In the end, schools should ensure the proper facilitation of financial skills that have been learned from home. A lack of proper training and education would only lead to a lack of such information benefiting young adults and children (Bamforth et al., 2018). It is the responsibility of schools to ensure their curriculums touch on the importance of financial literacy and ensure that their learners can practically grasp its concepts. Basic concepts are usually taught and demonstrated in mathematics classes but are not given the same financial application in life. This leads to a shallow understanding of the workings of a financial system and not the practical concepts of management of finances. These theories may be understood theoretically, but circumstances are not usually similarly tailored in real life.
Students and learners alike need to understand the importance of financial education and why it is personal and institutional responsibility to ensure its proper understanding. Institutions are usually inclined towards teaching financial literacy from the point of view that is broad and significant and not solely giving focus to short forms and buzz words relating to finance. Children from various households are usually given pocket money from a young age, and it should be their first lesson in money management. This provides an insight into finance and allows the students to understand the concepts and theories from a practical point of view. They should integrate their instruction received from school with real-life occurrences and go a long way to ensure it improves their financial literacy (Kirkham, 2016).
Based on this outlook of financial education, the study established the study’s theoretical framework. It is keen to indicate the rising number of financial issues experienced in households and how many adults in debt keep rising. This also considers the inflation rates and how they have led to financial difficulties for individuals and families. On top of that, such gaps also lead to students’ development and instruction, who then grow up to become poor financial decision-makers (Kirkham, 2016). As such, the study intends to ensure the count of Florida has adequate financial education systems in place and whether they are sufficient enough to validate the increasing aspect between the youth and the rise in debt.
Research techniques are a fundamental approach for gathering and debating information to make an educated choice. This is because the information being gathered may include a variety of settings and scenarios that need different types of analysis and judgments (Aboagye & Jung, 2018). Three basic approaches are used in research: the qualitative research technique, the quantitative research technique, and the combined method. All of these kinds of research have applications and are used in many sorts of research, and the emphasis of this discussion will be on the examination of the various types of research techniques.
Data segmentation is typical in data analysis. Without the breakdown, the data would be misinterpreted and misunderstood (Hennick et al., 2020). Understanding data segmentation is becoming more critical. We need to know when. This method is popular since it does not need a lot of data collecting. They are category, relationship, and description (Hennick et al., 2020). The qualitative analysis starts with data description and comprehension. The goals and procedure define a separate argument and school of thought. This is how most researchers acquire data. There are many techniques to check the analysis. Information categorization and links are crucial. Collected and sorted material must be correctly presented. The study in issue is socially relevant. It should include key findings from the study. It should be clear what the issue is (Hennick et al., 2020). That is, the data should be described and classified logically.
Most of the time, this study analysis is done to disseminate and discuss information. This style of study analysis frequently leads to a good debate. Data processing frequently requires mathematical and statistical accuracy (Hennick et al., 2020). The quantity of data and information necessary to establish a clear relationship is enormous. Furthermore, this method of analysis assumes that the data is quantitative. Consequently, facts from this form of study analysis frequently suggest how to approach the issue of discussion (Hennick et al., 2020).
This approach offers two key advantages. One benefit is that it increases the study sample size. The data capture a more precise and more educated argument or research response. This sort of study also addresses objectivity and information accuracy. As a result, it is a more attractive study approach. In terms of community or social research, a plethora of data on numerous areas of society is crucial. In this way, the study may fully understand the topic and guarantee that findings are precise and clear (Hennick et al., 2020).
These procedures include the employment of several sorts of study analysis to obtain conclusive facts. In simple words, it often involves using both qualitative and quantitative kind of research approaches to produce a clear result on the topic. This operates typically by exploiting research resources and methodologies into regions where both types of research analysis give a firm fit (Jamshed, 2014). This implies that each study method benefits and guarantees its function in unison. It also entails collecting both open and closed-ended data that are generally in response to the study topic. Finally, the practical and demanding technique ensures that qualitative methodologies are appropriately applied (Jamshed, 2014).
There are numerous mixed-method studies, which indicates it is not a question of simply combining the two concepts. This technique has the advantage of recognizing discrepancies between quantitative data and qualitative findings. Such a manner enables the proper harmonization of various features making it simpler to determine a subject of conversation. It is also based on the experiences and conclusions of the directly questioned participants, making the data a proper representation of the study issue (Jamshed, 2014).
Research Design Literature
The objectives of this research were to construct and evaluate a high school financial literacy training program and evaluate its effectiveness. Both quantitative and qualitative methodologies to get results “a greater understanding of an issue than we would have gotten from any of the other two ways. An “integrated approach” “incorporates both quantitative and qualitative methodologies. According to Cohen (2008), a hybrid approach incorporates to get a more in-depth understanding of a subject than one methodology alone.” It was determined to conduct a sequential investigation using quantitative and qualitative approaches.
It was discovered that the survey was performed on tenth-grade high school students who were specifically recruited to participate. The program started in the 10th grade due to the curriculum’s applicability and the number of students who volunteered. There were 42 students included in the quantitative component of this study. To perform the qualitative component of the research, 12 participants from the experimental group were chosen and provided financial literacy education tailored to their individual needs inside the experimental settings.
There are legitimate reasons for someone to be worried about their financial well-being on a personal, family, and communal level, as well as the financial well-being of the nation as a whole. As a result, as individuals learn more about money in the United States and other parts of the globe, positive things may occur in those countries and around the world. The quantity and relevance of financial education programs have increased dramatically in recent years. Still, adults who work in the field have a more excellent grasp of how programs are planned and operated, the mechanisms they operate, and the following steps to take. Children and adolescents have the right to receive financial education, which should come as no surprise given how self-evident and necessary it is to provide this kind of instruction.
It cannot be contested does not make it a particularly enticing cause to fight. Instead, a specific action plan must be developed to include financial education into state standards, train instructors, develop curriculum, investigate behavioral impacts, increase disciplinary competence and involvement, and resolve professional disagreements. Additionally, in addition to providing an in-depth look at current youth financial education, this research serves as a guide for future efforts to teach the school-age population how to make wise financial decisions and stay safe in an intimidatingly complex market, as detailed in the following section.
This data collection period led to the global economic and financial collapse of the banking sector. This was due to bad decisions and a lack of understanding about investing and making educated decisions. Individuals who made significant financial decisions saw their financial prospects diminish, and those in debt suffered the most since their debt commitments were huge (Kirkham, 2016). Even if the economy recovers, more debt will result, leading to even poorer financial decisions in the future.
The research found that when people’s circumstances deteriorate, a more significant percentage of them fall into debt and financial traps. The current educational system lacks time to explore such concerns in detail (Aboagye & Jung, 2018). Many teenagers and young adults cannot make sound financial decisions independently. It is owing to a lack of educational options. People unwittingly damage their financial prospects due to their inability to comprehend specific financial scenarios (Aboagye & Jung, 2018).
To properly apply financial education, one must understand how it reduces anxiety and contributes to a country’s or family’s prosperity. This might be seen as an investment in human capital to make the appropriate choices and guarantee that all household members fully grasp financial duties. Moreover, financial knowledge is critical to succeeding in today’s increasingly competitive business and the industrial world (Aboagye & Jung, 2018).
It was determined how much schools help their pupils’ financial education by searching all school-related financial literacy resources and instructions (Faulkner, 2017). After evaluating articles, papers, texts, and records, it was decided to make public if a knowledge database existed (Faulkner, 2017). According to one analysis, financial education budgets seem to be underfunded (Faulkner, 2017). Experts say the absence of financial education in schools is due to budget cutbacks and a lack of legislation that encourages more financing for this study area (Aboagye & Jung, 2018). Students and learners must understand the value of financial education and why it is a personal and institutional responsibility.
Financial literacy is more likely to be approached holistically by institutions than concentrating on money-related jargon and buzzwords. Distributing pocket money to children from various households should begin early. This helps pupils comprehend money and apply classroom knowledge to real-world circumstances (Kirkham, 2016). They should apply classroom knowledge to real-life circumstances, increasing their financial literacy.
Aboagye, J., & Jung, J. Y. (2018). Debt holding, financial behavior, and financial satisfaction. Journal of Financial Counseling and Planning, 29(2), 208-218.
Amagir, A., Groot, W., Maassen van den Brink, H., & Wilschut, A. (2018). A review of financial-literacy education programs for children and adolescents.Â Citizenship, Social and Economics Education,Â 17(1), 56-80.
Amagir, A., Groot, W., van den Brink, H. M., & Wilschut, A. (2020). Financial literacy of high school students in the Netherlands: knowledge, attitudes, self-efficacy, and behavior. International Review of Economics Education, 34, 100185.
Artavanis, N., & Karra, S. (2020). Financial literacy and student debt. The European Journal of Finance, 26(4-5), 382-401.
Axelrod, S., Lebow, D., & Peneva, E. (2018). Perceptions and Expectations of Inflation by U.S. Households. Finance and Economics Discussion Series, 2018(073).
Bamforth, J., Jebarajakirthy, C., & Geursen, G. (2018). Understanding undergraduatesâ€™ money management behavior: a study beyond financial literacy. International Journal of Bank Marketing.
Blue, L. E., & Grootenboer, P. (2019). A praxis approach to financial literacy education.Â Journal of curriculum studies,Â 51(5), 755-770.
CNBC.com. (2020). Teaching financial education in schools fnally catches us. Retrieved from
Cieslick, J., & van Stel, A. (2017). Explaining university studentsâ€™ career path intentions from their current entrepreneurial exposure. Journal of Small Business and Enterprise Development, 24(2), 313-332
Curran, M. A., Parrott, E., Ahn, S. Y., Serido, J., & Shim, S. (2018). Young adultsâ€™ life outcomes and well-being: Perceived financial socialization from parents, the romantic partner, and young adultsâ€™ own financial behaviors. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 39(3), 445-456.
Daveramsey.com (2019). Should Financial Literacy Be Taught in More Schools [Blog post]? Retrieved from
Dewi, V., Febrian, E., Effendi, N., & Anwar, M. (2020). Financial Literacy among the Millennial Generation: Relationships between Knowledge, Skills, Attitude, and Behavior. Australasian Accounting, Business and Finance Journal, 14(4), 24-37.
Draper, S. (2019). Why Financial Literacy in Schools matter today for the workforce of Tomorrow. Retrieved from
Kasman, M., Heuberger, B., & Hammond, R. A. (2018). A review of large scale youth financial literacy education policies and programs. The Brookings Institution. Federal Reserve Bank of New York. Quarterly Report on Household Debt and Credit; Federal Reserve Bank: New York, NY, USA, 2016; pp. 1â€“33
Hennink, M. M., Hutter, I., & Bailey, A. (2020). Qualitative research methods. SAGE Publications Ltd.
Herrerias, R. (2020). Financial Inclusion and Household Financial Behavior. Available at SSRN 3717100
Omar, M. A., & Inaba, K. (2020). Does financial inclusion reduce poverty and income inequality in developing countries? A panel data analysis.Â Journal of economic structures,Â 9(1), 1-25.
Kasman, M., Heuberger, B., & Hammond, R. A. (2018). A review of large-scale youth financial literacy education policies and programs. The Brookings Institution.
Khan, S. N. (2014). Qualitative Research Method: Grounded Theory. International Journal of Business and Management, 9(11).
Kirkham E. (2016). 1 in 3 Americans has saved $0 for retirement. Retrieved from
Lusardi, A.; Tufano, P. Debt literacy, Financial Experiences, and Osverindebtness. J. Pension Econ. Finance. 2015, 14, 332â€“368.
OkumuÅŸ, G. (2017). A Geographical Information System Based Urban Sustainability Evaluation Model Proposal In Neighbourhood Scale. Journal of Planning.
Rajh, E., Budak, J., AteljeviÄ‡, J., DavÄev, L., Jovanov, T., & OgnjenoviÄ‡, K. (2016). Entrepreneurial intentions in selected Southeast European countries. EIZ Working Papers, (9), 5-27.
Raut, R. K. (2020). Past behaviour, financial literacy and investment decision-making process of individual investors. International Journal of Emerging Markets.
Skagerlund, K., Lind, T., StrÃ¶mbÃ¤ck, C., TinghÃ¶g, G., & VÃ¤stfjÃ¤ll, D. (2018). Financial literacy and the role of numeracyâ€“How individualsâ€™ attitude and affinity with numbers influence financial literacy. Journal of behavioral and experimental economics, 74, 18-25.
Suparno, S. & Saptono, A. (2018). Entrepreneurship education and its influence on financial literacy and entrepreneurship skills in college. Journal of Entrepreneurship Education, 21(4), 1-11
Tejero, E. L. I. S. A., Pilongo, L., & Pamaran, F. R. A. N. C. I. S. (2019). Financial literacy in relation to financial management. University of Bohol Multidisciplinary Research Journal, 7(1), 138-165.