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DOC670 Applied Statistics for Research
Module 1 Discussion
DSP Research Resources
Discuss how you found resources to support the background description of your selected firm.
Provide details on these sources and why they were selected.
Describe how you expect to use these sources in the upcoming modules in this course.

DOC670 Applied Statistics for Research
Module 2 Discussion
Modeling for Your DSP
Modeling was the focus of this module.
What are the key factors (constructs) driving your DSP research?
What relationship do you see between these constructs?

DOC670 Applied Statistics for Research
Module 3 Discussion
Qualitative Data Collection
Describe the Trident University IRB located at https://careered.libguides.com/c.php?g=1127788&p=8228971
What is the process used to vet the data collection?
What can you do in the data collection design to streamline the IRB process?

DOC670 Applied Statistics for Research
Module 4 Discussion
Doctoral DSP Research Site
Discuss how you identified the organization that will be the research site for your DSP.
How did you contact the organization and get their commitment to be a resource for your DSP?
Did you agree to provide them the results of your DSP analysis in the form of a consulting type report?
Why do you find this organization interesting?

DOC670 Applied Statistics for Research
Module 5 Discussion
DSP Methodology Section
During the modules of this course, you were introduced to components of your Methodology section. The methodology has helped you to think about the means to research your selected organization. In the SLPs, you have covered various methods to analyze data, and you have produced analysis of your Background data for your selected organization. In this section, you will reflect on your progress toward completing the Methodology Section and Background section of your DSP. Discuss how you will continue to improve these sections in the DSP road ahead.

DOC670 Applied Statistics for Research
Module 6 Discussion
Reflection
What did you like most about this course and what would you like changed?
Discuss how this course has helped you in the DSP process.
After responding to the Reflective Discussion above, please complete an anonymous Course Evaluation Survey. Instructors are not able to view course evaluation reports until after the grade submission period is over. Thank you for your feedback.

DOC670 Applied Statistics for Research
Module 1 Case
ASSESSMENT OF DATA SOURCES FOR THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Assignment Overview
You will be working from the statement of intent about your project and the introduction that you originally prepared in DOC650 along with the literature review that you prepared in DOC660. By now, you should have a pretty good idea of the structure of your project, what you hope to accomplish with it, who you will be working with on it, and what you will actually be doing. The purpose of this methodology statement is to describe systematically what you will be doing in your research and how you will be doing it.
In the Case for this module, you will be reviewing numerous readings relating to different kinds of studies and how they are structured, the relationship between research questions and study design, and the constraints on research posed by different kinds of designs. You will then be asked to review your study and your research questions in light of this material, and to select and describe an appropriate study design that you believe will help you answer the research questions you have posed. This will constitute the first section of your project methodology.
As the course progresses, you will be making a series of decisions in which you will increasingly specify the structure of your project. These decisions build on each other in critical ways. However, you are not locked into previous decisions if you subsequently decide you need to change direction. In each subsequent module, as you build up your methodology, you will have an opportunity to go back and revise and/or extend the sections completed in previous modules. Case grades given for the first four modules will be advisory rather than final. Your ultimate grade will be based on the completed methodology at the end of the course.
Case Assignment
Prepare a 5- to 7-page paper in accordance with the Assignment Expectations below, describing the basic research design for your project, in accordance with the following outline:
Restate your research question(s), simply and directly.
Describe your basic assumptions about the project, the research site, and the participants, as well as the role that you hope to play.
Describe the goal(s) you hope your project will achieve.
Describe the general methodology you chose for your study, in terms of the various categories of research described in the module readings:
Examples of Research Methodologies
The DSP format and variation is based on the type of research design chosen. The most common types are the Case Study, Action Research, and Process Improvement. For an extended definition and application of research methodologies, refer to the DBA Handbook section 1.4.
Case Study. A case study takes a real case and contemporary phenomenon to investigate in depth and within its real-world context. For example, if a researcher writes a DSP on a marketing-related problem, they need to visit a business or organization on their physical location. They will need sufficient access to data for the research such as interviewing people, reviewing documents or records, or making field observations. (Studied in DOC640).
Action Research. This type of research considers real-world problems for solutions or recommendation in a participatory or collaborative way in an organization or community. Interactions and engagement are cyclical ways to
produce both knowledge and change action. This method requires sufficient data access, involving multiple cycles for change or implementation. (Studied in DOC640).
Process Improvement. Before improving any process, the researcher must investigate what is wrong, what is the root cause of the inefficiency, and how it can be fixed. The DBA Handbook suggests that this type of study is holistic to understanding how each business process interacts with the rest of the organization. The goal is to increase process effectiveness, efficiency, and profitability. Process Improvement should examine internal and/or external factors related to the area of improvement. It could also recommend business process change. The researcher needs sufficient access to data to implement, process, and monitor change. (Studied in DOC640).
Mixed Methods Research Design. Designing a mixed methods research is a challenging process due to the time required for creation and validation of quantitative instruments. The DBA Handbook recommends that quantitative components should be used as triangulation of data through secondary data sources such as government database records.
Ethnographic Research. It is a systematic investigation through in-depth observations and variables studying interactional patterns of people, cultures, habits, and mutual differences. Ethnographic research applies to business, educational, psychology, and medical patterns leading to multi-dimensional research.
Phenomenology. Through this method, the researcher focuses on commonalities and patterns of a particular group to construct universal meaning of an event, situation, or experience. The goal is to seek an understanding of peoples lived experience within a particular group. Through this process, the researcher may build a more insightful understanding of the phenomenon. Examples of phenomenology are research seeking understanding of affirmative action, political scandals, medical treatments, etc.
Examples of Data collection Techniques
Focus groups
Interviews (structured, semi-structured)
Participant Observation
Document Analysis
Explain why this method is the best for your purposes.
Identify your research partner(s) and the role they will play in the project.
List any specific deliverables that you will provide to your research partner(s) at the end of the project.
Assignment Expectations
Length: The written component of this assignment should be 57 pages long (double-spaced), not counting the cover page and reference page.
Organization: Subheadings should be used to organize your paper according to the questions.
Grammar and Spelling: While no points are deducted for minor errors, assignments are expected to adhere to standard guidelines of grammar, spelling, punctuation, and sentence syntax. Points may be deducted if grammar and spelling impact clarity. We encourage you to use tools such as grammarly.com and proofread your paper before submission.
When you write your paper make sure you do the following:
Answer the assignment questions directly.
Stay focused on the precise assignment questions. Do not go off on tangents or devote a lot of space to summarizing general background materials.
Use evidence from your readings to justify your conclusions.
Be sure to cite at least five credible resources.
Make sure to reference your sources of information with both a bibliography and in-text citations. See the Trident guide to APA Style, 7th edition. Another resource is the Writing Style Guide, which is found under My Resources in the TLC Portal.
Your assignment will be graded using the following criteria:
Assignment-Driven Criteria: Student demonstrates mastery covering all key elements of the assignment.
Critical Thinking/Application to Professional Practice: Student demonstrates mastery conceptualizing the problem, and analyzing information. Conclusions are logically presented and applied to professional practice in an exceptional manner.
Business Writing and Quality of References: Student demonstrates mastery and proficiency in written communication and use of appropriate and relevant literature at the doctoral level.

Citing Sources: Student demonstrates mastery applying APA formatting standards to both in-text citations and the reference list.
Professionalism and Timeliness: Assignments are submitted on time.

DOC670 Applied Statistics for Research
Module 1 SLP
ASSESSMENT OF DATA SOURCES FOR THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
In this SLP you will begin the process of collecting and analyzing background information on the firm for your Doctoral Study Project (DSP). You received this firms commitment via the Letter of Intent in DOC650.
In the SLPs, you will analyze secondary data on your chosen firm. (In the Cases, you will design how you will conduct your primary research at the firm.) Secondary data are records that are publicly available while primary data for most of you will involve interviews and observations at the firm.
In the SLPs, you will take a deep dive into the context of the firm for your DSP. For some of you this may be a for-profit corporation that has stockholders and publishes an Annual Report with articles about the firm in Forbes, Fortune, CNNMoney, and other sources. For others, this may be a non-profit or volunteer organization. Some may have selected a small business that is privately owned, or you may have selected a government agency for your DSP. You could be researching an educational institution at any level. Bear in mind that before you can start collecting primary data from the firm, you will need to submit a proposal on your research to Tridents Institutional Review Board, one of whose rules is that research subjects must be at least 18 years of age.
In this SLP, you will describe the organization where you will conduct your DSP research, describing the organization in detail and why it is relevant for your research question. Here in SLP 1, you will build a quantitative case to supplement your qualitative rationale for selecting this firm.
Below is a list of data sources that may be helpful in finding background information for your firm. You may have other sources, and you can certainly use them as long as you provide the source for the information you use in justifying the context for your DSP research.
Data Sources
https://www.usa.gov/statistics
https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/susb.html
http://www.annualreports.com/
http://data.foundationcenter.org/
https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census/decade/2020/2020-census-main.html
https://www.bls.gov/
https://www.ibisworld.com/industry-trends/ (available via the Trident Online Library)
Nonprofits
In the remaining SLPs, you will use Excel. In Figure 1 below you see how you can get the latest version of Excel via the Trident website using Microsoft 365. EXCEL is free to you as a TUI Student. Log on to mytlc.trident.edu and then go to your email.
Click the Office 365 button at the top.
Click Install Office Apps.
Follow the directions to get Office 365 on your computer.
Figure 1
Figure 1.
SLP Assignment Expectations
Provide background data about your organization. This may be the total sales or the number of customers, patients, or clients served. How does this firm differ from other similar organizations? Find similar statistics on these other similar firms and provide a comparative analysis in a table.
You want to find all the secondary data available on the organization that you can locate. Besides financial data this may involve research with IBISWorld libraries and articles in Fortune Magazine or Business Week. Get the names of management and descriptions of their jobs. Find out the firms locations (addresses) and how products or services are delivered. Describe the customers or other external contacts. What are the logistical issues in delivering the product or service? Who are the competitors and what are their sales? Of the total market for the product or service, what percentage does your firm have?
From your review of secondary sources, produce a 4- to 5-page Background Introduction on your selected firm. In coming modules, you will add quantitative analysis to the Introduction you develop for this SLP. This is the first step and the introduction to your background on why this firm has been selected for your research.
Your assignment will be graded using the following criteria:
Assignment-Driven Criteria: Student demonstrates mastery covering all key elements of the assignment.
Critical Thinking/Application to Professional Practice: Student demonstrates mastery conceptualizing the problem and analyzing information. Conclusions are logically presented and applied to professional practice in an exceptional manner.
Business Writing and Quality of References: Student demonstrates mastery and proficiency in written communication and use of appropriate and relevant literature at the doctoral level.
Citing Sources: Student demonstrates mastery applying APA formatting standards to both in-text citations and the reference list.
Professionalism and Timeliness: Assignments are submitted on time.

DOC670 Applied Statistics for Research
Module 2 Case
DESIGNING THE STUDY AND ASSESSMENT OF THE RESEARCH CONTEXT
Assignment Overview
In this Case, you will be reading materials relating to definition of constructs, operational definition, and measurement. Then, you will be asked to create a list of such constructs and measures for your own study, taking into consideration the issues you have been reviewing and the decisions that you previously made regarding research designs. You will also be asked to identify control and/or environmental factors that you wont be able to include directly in your study, but which might affect your results.
As the course progresses, you will be making a series of decisions in which you will increasingly specify the structure of your project. These decisions build on each other in critical ways. However, you are not locked into previous decisions if you subsequently decide you need to change direction. You have an opportunity to go back and revise and/or extend the previous section completed in the previous module. If you do revise the earlier section, please include it and indicate what changes you have made to it. Case grades given for the first four modules will be advisory rather than final.
Case Assignment
Prepare a 5- to 7-page paper in accordance with the following Assignment Expectations, describing the measurement issues for your project in accordance with the following outline:
List of main concepts in your study; why you believe that each of them is important.
Any explicit or implicit model that you may believe connects these concepts and that you propose to explore, if any. See above on creating and illustrating models.
Initial operational definitions of your study concepts, arranged in the form of this grid (please replace our illustration with your information):
Concepts Constructs Variables/
Indicators Measures Source Study or control Level of analysis
Love Love of children Time spent with child Minutes of direct contact per week Observation Study Individual
Quality of interaction Assessments immediately after interaction; qualitative ordinal scale 1-5 low-high Questionnaire to participants Study Individual
Gender Self-expressed gender Gender category Self-identification Participant query Control Individual
Profitability ROI ROI Calculated rate Organizational records Study Organizational
List any concerns you may have about measurement or the general availability of the data you need.
Assignment Expectations
Length: The written component of this assignment should be 57 pages long (double-spaced) without counting the cover page and reference page.
Organization: Subheadings should be used to organize your paper according to the questions.
Grammar and Spelling: While no points are deducted for minor errors, assignments are expected to adhere to standard guidelines of grammar, spelling, punctuation, and sentence syntax. Points may be deducted if grammar and spelling impact clarity. We encourage you to use tools such as grammarly.com and proofread your paper before submission.
When you write your paper make sure you do the following:
Answer the assignment questions directly.
Stay focused on the precise assignment questions. Do not go off on tangents or devote a lot of space to summarizing general background materials.
Use evidence from your readings to justify your conclusions.
Be sure to cite at least five credible resources.
Make sure to reference your sources of information with both a bibliography and in-text citations. See the Trident guide to APA Style, 7th edition. Another resource is the Writing Style Guide, which is found under My Resources in the TLC Portal.
Your assignment will be graded using the following criteria:
Assignment-Driven Criteria: Student demonstrates mastery covering all key elements of the assignment.
Critical Thinking/Application to Professional Practice: Student demonstrates mastery conceptualizing the problem and analyzing information. Conclusions are logically presented and applied to professional practice in an exceptional manner.
Business Writing and Quality of References: Student demonstrates mastery and proficiency in written communication and use of appropriate and relevant literature at the doctoral level.
Citing Sources: Student demonstrates mastery applying APA formatting standards to both in-text citations and the reference list.
Professionalism and Timeliness: Assignments are submitted on time.

DOC670 Applied Statistics for Research
Module 2 SLP
DESIGNING THE STUDY AND ASSESSMENT OF THE RESEARCH CONTEXT
Now that you have described the context for your research and provided a description of the secondary data available for that firm, you will now begin to mine that data. As an example, the United Way of Orange County was selected to demonstrate some use of Excel for your background analysis. For nonprofits, there is a database listed in the secondary sources list that has the financial report forms 990 listed for the nonprofits. This data is used in a running analysis for the United Way of Orange County.
If you need an Excel refresher, here are some resources to help you:
Brown, N., Lave, B., Romey, J., Schatz, M., & Shingledecker, D. (2018) Beginning Excel. OpenOregon, Creative Commons License. Retrieved from https://openoregon.pressbooks.pub/beginningexcel/.
Harvey, G. (2016). Excel 2016 all-in-one for dummies [Books24x7 version]. John Wiley & Sons. Available in the Trident Online Library: Follow these instructions for Finding Skillsoft Books. Enter 112925 in the search bar.
Harvey, G. (2016). Chapter 10: Charming charts and gorgeous graphics. In Excel 2016 for dummies [Books24x7 version]. John Wiley & Sons. Available in the Trident Online Library: Follow these instructions for Finding Skillsoft Books. Enter 117498 in the search bar.

In Figure 3 below is the Excel Chart done for the United Way of Orange County showing how the spreadsheet was set up. (Click on the image below to open the file.)
Figure 3
Figure 3.
Using this as a model and using the secondary data you found on your firm, produce a background analysis on the firm that shows some pertinent information in the spreadsheet along with charts to show the impact this firm is having in the area or the competitive space in which it is located. This is your unique perspective on the firm you have selected for the DSP, and you will put this in the appendix ultimately as background on your firm. This, along with the Introduction you developed in SLP 1, will be the second part of the Background Analysis for your firm that will go in the Appendix of the DSP. Integrate the spreadsheet and graphical analysis into your Module 2 SLP.
SLP Assignment Expectations
Your assignment will be graded using the following criteria:
Assignment-Driven Criteria: Student demonstrates mastery covering all key elements of the assignment.
Critical Thinking/Application to Professional Practice: Student demonstrates mastery conceptualizing the problem and analyzing information. Conclusions are logically presented and applied to professional practice in an exceptional manner.
Business Writing and Quality of References: Student demonstrates mastery and proficiency in written communication and use of appropriate and relevant literature at the doctoral level.
Citing Sources: Student demonstrates mastery applying APA formatting standards to both in text citations and the reference list.
Professionalism and Timeliness: Assignments are submitted on time.

DOC670 Applied Statistics for Research
Module 3 Case
OBTAINING THE DATA FOR THE RESEARCH CONTEXT
Assignment Overview
In this Case Assignment, you will be reading several articles and sources about sampling, about participant recruitment and interaction, and about managing the relationship between research participants and researchers. You will then be asked to think about how these issues apply to your project and your research questions, and to develop an appropriate sampling plan for your study taking all these issues into consideration.
As the course progresses, you will be making a series of decisions in which you will increasingly specify the structure of your project. These decisions build on each other in critical ways. However, you are not locked into previous decisions if you subsequently decide you need to change direction. As before, you have an opportunity to go back and revise and/or extend the previous sections completed in previous modules. If you do revise earlier sections, please include them and indicate what changes you have made to them.
Case AssignmentPrepare a 5- to 7-page paper in accordance with the following Assignment Expectations, describing the sampling issues for your project, in accordance with the following outline:
Identify the organization within which you are going to be constructing your project, and the nature of the problem that you are investigating.
Identify the general kinds of respondents within the organization, and the kinds of information that you will need to collect from each group of people in order to complete your project.
Complete the following grid describing the respondents in your project and some things about them:
Interview(s)
Subject Role Topics When Purpose IRB concerns?
Questionnaire(s)
To whom Role(s) Topics Purpose IRB concerns?
Identify any additional issues which you think might arise in terms of obtaining cooperation from your respondents or that might complicate getting the information that you need.
Assignment Expectations
Length: The written component of this assignment should be 57 pages long (double-spaced) without counting the cover page and reference page.
Organization: Subheadings should be used to organize your paper according to the questions.
Grammar and Spelling: While no points are deducted for minor errors, assignments are expected to adhere to standard guidelines of grammar, spelling, punctuation, and sentence syntax. Points may be deducted if grammar and spelling impact clarity. We encourage you to use tools such as grammarly.com and proofread your paper before submission.
When you write your paper make sure you do the following:
Answer the assignment questions directly.
Stay focused on the precise assignment questions. Do not go off on tangents or devote a lot of space to summarizing general background materials.
Use evidence from your readings to justify your conclusions.
Be sure to cite at least five credible resources.
Make sure to reference your sources of information with both a bibliography and in-text citations. See the Trident guide to APA Style, 7th edition. Another resource is the Writing Style Guide, which is found under My Resources in the TLC Portal.
Your assignment will be graded using the following criteria:
Assignment-Driven Criteria: Student demonstrates mastery covering all key elements of the assignment.
Critical Thinking/Application to Professional Practice: Student demonstrates mastery conceptualizing the problem and analyzing information. Conclusions are logically presented and applied to professional practice in an exceptional manner.
Business Writing and Quality of References: Student demonstrates mastery and proficiency in written communication and use of appropriate and relevant literature at the doctoral level.
Citing Sources: Student demonstrates mastery applying APA formatting standards to both in-text citations and the reference list.
Professionalism and Timeliness: Assignments are submitted on time.

DOC670 Applied Statistics for Research
Module 3 SLP
OBTAINING THE DATA FOR THE RESEARCH CONTEXT
Descriptive statistics are used to learn about the characteristics of a measure that is collected over time or may be a measure of an item from a survey administered to many people. Typically, descriptive statistics are the average score (mean), the maximum, the minimum in the scores along with the variation. Descriptive statistics is used to describe the measures rather than to make inference centered around the same item or conceptual construct being measured. Thus, descriptive statistics is not inferential statistics and does not use probability to infer behaviors of a population from which the measures were drawn.
Descriptive statistics fits the background analysis for your firm selected for your DSP. Here you have financial and performance measures of the firm with respect to others in the same competitive space. In most cases descriptive measures can be used to generate trend lines to try and forecast based on past measures.
Here is a descriptive spreadsheet for the United Way of Orange County that shows the average and standard deviation for revenues and expenses from the 990 Report we looked at in SLP 2. Here in this spreadsheet Figure 4 (click the image to open the file) you see by clicking the various tabs on the lower part of the spreadsheet graphs that can be generated from this 990 data. Columns F and G have the average and standard deviation of the revenue and expense measures, but they are rather static. To use the years of revenue and expense measures, you can click the Forecast Sheet tab on your tool bar. This is how the graphs for Revenues, Expenses, and Net were produced where a technique called exponential smoothly is used that factors in the four years of data to produce the trend lines in the forecast.
Figure 4
Figure 4.
Chapter 18 in:
Carlberg, C. (2016). Excel sales forecasting for dummies, 2nd edition. John Wiley & Sons. Available in the Trident Online Library: Follow these instructions for Finding Skillsoft Books. Enter 132620 in the search bar.
SLP Assignment Expectations
Now examine the secondary data you have on your firm from SLP 2 or add more to the data as needed. Look at the sample and review the Excel book and particularly the one on Exponential Smoothing. Calculate some descriptive statistics for your data and prepare some forecast charts. Remember the Forecast Sheet tool on the upper toolbar next to What If Analysis. Produce a spreadsheet with associated graphs; also provide a page or two to discuss this data analysis and the conclusions you have drawn. Add this to the growing work you have on the Background for the firm you are studying.
Your assignment will be graded using the following criteria:
Assignment-Driven Criteria: Student demonstrates mastery covering all key elements of the assignment.
Critical Thinking/Application to Professional Practice: Student demonstrates mastery conceptualizing the problem and analyzing information. Conclusions are logically presented and applied to professional practice in an exceptional manner.
Business Writing and Quality of References: Student demonstrates mastery and proficiency in written communication and use of appropriate and relevant literature at the doctoral level.
Citing Sources: Student demonstrates mastery applying APA formatting standards to both in-text citations and the reference list.
Professionalism and Timeliness: Assignments are submitted on time.

DOC670 Applied Statistics for Research
Module 4 Case
DESIGNING THE TRIANGULATION APPROACH TO ADDRESS THE RESEARCH PROBLEM
Assignment Overview
In this Case Assignment, you will be reading several articles and sources describing data collection

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