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PATH370 Pathophysiology
Week 7 Understanding Assignment
Question 1The most common site affected in Pagets disease is the
lower spine.
Question 2 Systemic disorders include
adhesive capsulitis.
rheumatoid arthritis.
Question 3Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a rheumatic disease attributed to
wear and tear on weight-bearing joints.
septic joint inflammation and necrosis.
unknown etiologic factors.
autoimmune mechanisms.
Question 4The displacement of two bones in which the articular surfaces partially lose contact with each other is called
Question 5One of the most common causes of acute pain is
trigeminal neuralgia.
Question 6Prosthetic joint infection is most often because of
defective replacement material.
injury to the joint.
hematogenous transfer.
Question 7The disorders characterized by softening and then enlargement of bones is referred to as
Paget disease.
Question 8Healing of a fractured bone with a poor alignment is called
delayed union.
Question 9A fracture in which bone breaks into two or more fragments is referred to as
Question 10Assessment of an extremity six hours after surgical alignment and casting demonstrates pulselessness and pallor. The priority action to take is to
increase the administration his pain medication.
initiate action to have the cast split or removed.
note the increase in pain in his chart, and recheck the extremity in 30 minutes.
elevate the extremity to relieve swelling.
Question 11 Please explain the pathophysiology of osteoarthritis to me, says another nurse. Is it just wear and tear so that the cartilage wears out? Your best response is
Yes; repeated use just wears out the cartilage, until it becomes thin and denuded. That causes pain and will eventually cause joint inflammation.
Yes; with increasing age, the inflammation from repeated joint use accumulates and causes the cartilage to get thin and ragged until it disappears.
No; cells in bone, cartilage, and the synovial membrane all get activated and secrete inflammatory mediators that destroy cartilage and damage bone.
No; autoimmune cells infiltrate the joint and collect on the cartilage in a mass called pannus that eventually thins and destroys the cartilage.
Question 12The most common type of osteomyelitis is
contiguous focus.
Brodie abscess.
direct invasion.
Question 13Ankylosing spondylitis causes
intervertebral joint fusion.
instability of synovial joints.
costal cartilage degeneration.
temporomandibular joint degeneration.
Question 14To avoid the progression of cutaneous lesions, a patient diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) should
avoid sun exposure.
avoid excessive use of moisturizers.
refrain from washing the affected areas.
apply warm, wet compresses daily.
Question 15The most common symptom of multiple myeloma is
pathologic fracture.
bone pain.
Question 16The most common presenting sign/symptom with rheumatic fever is
cardiac murmur.
painless nodules.
Question 17A unique characteristic feature of fibromyalgia is the presence of
tender point pain.
head pain.
muscle atrophy.
Question 18Although skin manifestations may occur in numerous locations, the classic presentation of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) includes
lesions affecting the palms of hands and the soles of feet.
dry, scaly patches in the antecubital area and behind the knees.
cracked, scaly areas in the webs of fingers.
a butterfly pattern rash on the face across the bridge of the nose.
Question 19A patient presenting with a severe, pounding headache accompanied by nausea and photophobia is likely experiencing a ________ headache.
Question 20The disease that is similar to osteomalacia and occurs in growing children is
Paget disease.
Question 21Secondary injury after head trauma refers to
brain injury resulting from the initial trauma.
focal areas of bleeding.
brain injury resulting from the bodys response to tissue damage.
injury as a result of medical therapy.
Question 22Which neurologic disorder is commonly referred to as Lou Gehrig disease?
Multiple sclerosis
Parkinson disease
Alzheimer disease
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Question 23The physiologic change most likely to lead to an increase in intracranial pressure is
cerebral vasodilation.
respiratory hyperventilation.
REM sleep.
Question 24It is true that encephalitis is usually
because of a bacterial infection in the CNS.
because of a viral infection in brain cells.
Question 25A college student living in a dormitory reports a stiff neck and headache and is found to have a fever of 102F. This information is most consistent with
skull fracture.
cerebral ischemia.
Question 26Seizures that involve both hemispheres at the outset are termed
Question 27Subarachnoid hemorrhage is usually managed with volume expansion and blood pressure support to enhance cerebral perfusion. This is necessary because subarachnoid hemorrhage predisposes to
cerebral vasospasm.
excessive volume loss.
increased intracranial pressure.
Question 28Which group of clinical findings indicates the poorest neurologic functioning?
Spontaneous eye opening, movement to command, oriented to self only
Eyes open to light touch on shoulder, pupils briskly reactive to light bilaterally
Assumes decorticate posture with light touch, no verbal response
No eye opening, responds to painful stimulus by withdrawing
Question 29Most sensory afferent pain fibers enter the spinal cord by way of the ________ nerve roots.
C fiber
Question 30What effect do demyelinating disorders such as multiple sclerosis have on neurotransmission?
Slower rate of action potential conduction
Increased rate of action potential conduction
Facilitation of action potential initiation
Faster rate of repolarization
Question 31A patient who experiences early symptoms of muscle twitching, cramping, and stiffness of the hands may be demonstrating signs of
Guillain-Barr syndrome.
amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.
Parkinson disease.
Question 32Dopamine precursors and anticholinergics are all used in the management of Parkinson disease, because they
increase dopamine activity in the basal ganglia.
induce regeneration of neurons in the basal ganglia.
prevent progression of the disease.
produce excitation of basal ganglia structures.
Question 33Acceleration-deceleration movements of the head often result in polar injuries in which
injury is localized to the site of initial impact.
widespread neuronal damage is incurred.
bleeding from venules fills the subdural space.
focal injuries occur in two places at opposite poles.
Question 34Pain is thought of as
a subjective experience that is difficult to measure objectively.
associated with changes in vital signs reflecting its intensity.
experienced in the same way by all individuals.
always the result of tissue damage that activates nociceptors.
Question 35The ________ is the level of painful stimulation required to be perceived.
Question 36Manifestations of acute brain ischemia (Cushing reflex) are due primarily to
parasympathetic nervous system activation.
sympathetic nervous system activation.
autoregulation of body systems.
loss of brainstem reflexes.
Question 37The stage of spinal shock that follows spinal cord injury is characterized by
reflex urination and defecation.
autonomic dysreflexia.
absent spinal reflexes below the level of injury.
motor spasticity and hyperreflexia below the level of injury.
Question 38Intracranial pressure normally ranges from ______ mm Hg.
0 to 15
10 to 20
15 to 25
20 to 30
Question 39Which treatment is helpful in neuropathic pain but not used for acute pain?
Narcotic analgesics
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin
Nonnarcotic analgesics
Question 40Pain with passive stretching of a muscle is indicative of
noncontractile tissue injury.
contractile tissue injury.
vascular insufficiency.
skeletal muscle damage.

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